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Modulation de la phase postprandiale du glucose

Abstract : The reduction of the postprandial glycemic excursions has been proposed as to limit risk of type 2 diabetes. There has been growing interest in the development of dietary ingredients that could potentially modulate carbohydrates bioavailability and thus their impact on postprandial glycemia. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of the the modulation of glucose bioavailability by different ingredients on 2-hour glycemic response but also on glucose kinetics (total, exogenous and endogenous – stable isotopes) and on other daylong metabolic parameters. In the first study (β-glucanes), we showed that the addition of β-glucan fiber to a carbohydrate meal in healthy overweight subjects reduced the appearance of glucose in plasma. As a consequence, insulin response was also prolonged and induced a prolonged inhibition on lipolysis and endogenous glucose production. In the second study (eurostarch), the reduction in glucose availability (slowly available glucose, low GI) at breakfast decreased plasma exogenous glucose appearance and tended to improve glucose control at the subsequent lunch. But we did not observe the improvement of such metabolic effects in the long-term (5 weeks). In the last study, we showed that the addition of a resistant dextrin, NUTRIOSE®10, decreased postprandial glycemic and insulinemic response as well as daylong satiety-related ghrelin profile, compared to maltodextrin. In parallel, the prolonged fermentation and oxidation pattern of NUTRIOSE®10 up to 10 hours after ingestion at breakfast could induced an extended energy release with NUTRIOSE®10 in the late postprandial phase. In conclusion, the follow-up of metabolic parameters beyond 2 hours after the meal have highlighted the longer-term metabolic effects of the modulation of glucose appearance in plasma (delay, extension, reduction) on glucose kinetics, insulin response, lipolysis and nutrients oxidation
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  • HAL Id : tel-00878436, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 330158

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Julie-Anne Nazare. Modulation de la phase postprandiale du glucose. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009LYO10292⟩. ⟨tel-00878436⟩

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