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L'impact du cratère du lac Bosumtwi : l'utilisation de la tomographie de la résistivité électrique (TRE) pour tracer la carte géométrique de la paroi internet du cr&tère et de l'impact associé à la structure

Abstract : Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and geological field surveys have been used to map the sediment/bedrock contact and impact related structures of the 1.07 Myr old Bosumtwi impact crater. The 10.5 km complex crater excavated in 2.1–2.2 Gyr Precambrian metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks is filled by the 8.5 km Lake Bosumtwi. It is the source crater of the tektites and microtektites of the Ivory Coast strewn field. Electrical resistivity survey was carried out sixteen (16) profiles running from the shore of the lake towards the rim of the crater. The multi-electrode gradient array method with minimum electrode separation of 5 m was used. The data were corrected for topography and inverted using the L1–norm (robust inversion) techniqueof the Res2DInv software. The area extending from the lake shore towards the crater rim contains essentially three formations. The low resistivity regions (< 64 .m) represent the lake sediments. The moderately high resistivity regions with values between 128 and 200 .m were interpreted as impact related breccias (dikes, allochthonous or parautochthonous) depending on their geometries. Lastly, the model clearly differentiate the resistive basement metamorphic rocks (> 128 .m) fromthe lake sediments and the breccias due to their geometry and lateral extent. Also observed was a direct correspondence between the lithology on the surface and the subsurface resistivity structures at Dwamam in the southeast section of the lake. At Dwamam, the sediments were about 200 m away from the shore and stretch about 400 m towards the crater rim unlike in other areas where the sediments were mapped from the shore. The gradient of the sediments/bedrock contact showsa symmetry in the NE–SW direction and dips between the lowest of 16 degrees in the NE to the highest 36 degrees in the SW. Majority of the fractures marked were in the southwest and were filled with clasts or impact breccia matrix. The faults were mostly delineated in the west. Averagely, the dips of the faults are about 60 degrees and 80 degrees for the east and west sections of the crater respectively. The dips of the faults were statistically treated using the von Mises and Fisher statistics, it was found that the faults have a preferred direction and it is possible to determine at least two different orientations. Theanalysis of the results of the sediments/bedrock surface and the faults combined with the location of the tektite strewn field indicate that the about 0.8–1 km bolide that created the complex crater came from the NE. The findings have shown that the ERT is efficient and a useful tool in impact cratering science research.
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Akwasi Acheampong Aning. L'impact du cratère du lac Bosumtwi : l'utilisation de la tomographie de la résistivité électrique (TRE) pour tracer la carte géométrique de la paroi internet du cr&tère et de l'impact associé à la structure. Earth Sciences. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. English. ⟨NNT : 2012PA112133⟩. ⟨tel-00877066⟩

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