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Etude expérimentale du transitoire de remplissage des cavités d'injection des organes de combustion du moteur VINCI

Abstract : Under the supervision of SNECMA, a new cryotechnic engine is being developed for Ariane 5. This engine, named VINCI, uses liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as propellant. It must be re-ignitable in flight. The filling transitory phase of an intermediate tank where the liquid oxygen passes through before entering the combustion chamber, has proved to be a very important stage that must be handled. This tank, called LOX dome, is directly linked to the combustion chamber through the oxygen injectors. Numerical tools are currently under development. They will allow to simulate the filling of this tank in the space. In order to validate those numerical tools, an experimental program has been launched. It involves SNECMA, the CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales : National Centre for Spatial Studies) and the LEGI (Laboratoire des Ecoulements Géophysiques et Industriels : Laboratory of Geophysical and Industrial Flows). Simple and repeatable experiments must be run. They will allow to gather experimental data that will further be used as test cases for the simulations. A test bench has been brought into service step by step at the LEGI, as well as scientific instruments. Water is used in place of liquid oxygen. A similarity of flows based on the Weber number has been chosen between the real case and the experiment. The Weber number measures the relative importance of the fluid inertia compared to its surface tension. Two experimental campaigns have been realized, that have focused on the dynamic aspects of the filling transitory phase : variations of the total flow and of the pressures measured during an experiment, evaluation of the void fraction in the tank, flow visualization in the tank and at the outlet of the injectors. The scientific instrumentation used is made of a Coriolis flow-meter, pressure probes, an optical probe, and high speed cameras with a laser for the flow visualization. The first experimental campaign has studied the tank filling with water only. The main control parameter is the reference pressure of the liquid flow. In the second campaign, both liquid and air flows are simultaneously injected in the tank. It aims at reproducing the real conditions of the filling transitory phase, where helium is injected in the tank with the liquid oxygen. The additional control parameter is the initial gas flow. Those campaigns have shown as well the importance of the valve opening that controls the liquid flow. Those campaigns are a first step in the understanding of the filling transitory phase of the LOX dome. They have permitted to visualize the flow in the tank and at the outlet of the injectors and to point out some important phenomena occurring during the tank filling. In particular, they have highlighted the existence of a delay before the flow can develop through the injectors. This delay can be responsible for a pressure peak in the tank during the transitory phase. The influence of the gas fraction on the flow through the injectors has been underlined as well but still must be accurately quantified. The next step of the study concerns the energetics of the filling transitory phase, especially the thermal transfers that occur between the helium, the oxygen and the walls of the tank.
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Nicolas Hérenger. Etude expérimentale du transitoire de remplissage des cavités d'injection des organes de combustion du moteur VINCI. Autre. Université de Grenoble, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENI089⟩. ⟨tel-00876770⟩

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