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Caractérisation et impacts des émissions de polluants du transport routier : Apports méthodologiques et cas d'études en Rhône Alpes.

Abstract : Fine particles (PM10-P2.5) are recognized to be deleterious to human health particularly in the roadway vicinity. In European countries, and in particular in France, the European daily limit value is exceeded in many sites more than 35 times a year. One of the major sources of fine particles in urban and roadside sites is road traffic. Emissions from road traffic involve exhaust and non-exhaust emissions (resuspension of road dusts, from the brakes, tyres and road-surface-wear, from the corrosion of vehicle components…). Numerous studies have been performed in order to account for exhaust emissions, however not in France. Generally, the profiles used in source apportionment models are not adapted (since they are American profiles) to the French or European fleets. In addition, the contribution of the nonexhaust fraction to total particulate matter (PM) mass is generally not accounted for in the source apportionment results. Therefore, PM10 emissions are underestimated. As a result, better knowledge about formation, characterization and quantification of particles from traffic are becoming necessary. The goals of this work are numerous because ambient air and exhaust emission measurements have been involved. The aim is to accurately discriminate exhaust and nonexhaust sources, in order to provide groundbreaking insights into the contribution and chemical composition of traffic sources. Therefore, the analyses of gas and particle tracers represent a big part of this work. The relationships between the measurements of 5 in-use vehicles well-represented in the French fleet and measurements performed in the vicinity of a suburban highway (southern ring road of Grenoble) have been firstly examined. In the first study, several chemical compounds, organics and inorganics, appeared as tracers of vehicular exhaust (EC, light PAHs, typical alkanes profiles, metals like Fe, Cu etc.). Large differences are noticeable between Diesel vehicles without DPF and petrol vehicles/diesel vehicle retrofitted with a DPF. In the second study, comparison with results from an urban background site (Grenoble-Les Frênes) and from the traffic site (Grenoble-Echirolles) highlighted several specific chemical compounds of exhaust and non-exhaust sources (EC, Cu, Fe, Sn, Mn…). Large increments due to the local traffic have been observed (EC (+78%), Cu (82%), Fe (88%), etc.). The 4-hour temporal resolution allowed for the detailed characterization of chemical species during rush hours and less busy periods. An additional field campaign was performed in another roadside site (Grenoble-Le Rondeau) but in winter during salting conditions. Supplementary information was obtained concerning non-exhaust sources. Finally, thanks to the results from the first part of this work, a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis was applied to roadside data (Echirolles and Le Rondeau) in order to discriminate non-exhaust and exhaust traffic sources and to estimate their contribution to PM10. Major contributions for traffic sources (exhaust and non-exhaust) were 34% (Echirolles) and 53% (Le Rondeau). Uncertainties linked to these results are discussed with the results of the first part (detailed chemical study) of this work.
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Submitted on : Friday, October 25, 2013 - 10:12:09 AM
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Lucie Polo Rehn. Caractérisation et impacts des émissions de polluants du transport routier : Apports méthodologiques et cas d'études en Rhône Alpes.. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Grenoble, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013GRENU013⟩. ⟨tel-00876623⟩

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