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Les thérapies anti-angiogéniques : entre espoir et réalité. Vers l'identification de marqueurs prédictifs et de nouvelles cibles thérapeutiques dans le traitement du cancer du rein

Abstract : The aim of my work is to study resistance mechanisms to anti-angiogenic treatments of Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma (ccRCC). We observed that bevacizumab (BVZ) -a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting VEGF and currently used in the clinic- promotes the growth of human ccRCC xenografts in nude mice. This model mimics the “escape phase” widely observed in patients. BVZ treatment induces lymphangiogenesis and over-expression of VEGF-C. Tumor cells exposed to the treatment acquire an increased spreading capacity. Hence, BVZ might promote tumor progression and metastasis formation of ccRCC. Furthermore, this treatment decreases the expression of the receptor phosphor tyrosine phosphatase kappa (PTRP). This phosphatase is involved in the regulation of tyrosine kinase receptors controlling growth and migration, among others EGF, PDGF and HGF receptors. Thus, BVZ might promote tumor growth independently of VEGF. Moreover, the treatment increases secretion of redundant cytokines like CXCL7 and CXCL8. By their ability to exert similar effect as VEGF, these cytokines promote tumor development under BVZ treatment. In particular, CXCL7 and its receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2, play a central role in the development of ccRCC. Targeting this pathway efficiently reduces tumor growth. Target receptors of PTRP for which inhibitors are currently used for other cancers, VEGF-C and CXCL7 could therefore be regarded as new predictive markers for BVZ efficiency and may be considered as potential therapeutic targets. Resistance to BVZ could also be explained by the presence of "beneficial" forms of anti-angiogenic VEGF recognized by the BVZ with the same affinity as the pro-angiogenic forms. We have demonstrated that prophylactic immunization with a pro-angiogenic VEGF-specific peptide limits tumor growth of murine syngeneic ccRCC. Similarly, in curative therapy, antibodies specific for pro-angiogenic VEGF block growth of ccRCC in nude mice without inducing the escape mechanisms observed with BVZ. These results highlight the relevance of targeting such pro-angiogenic forms of VEGF for the treatment of ccRCC.
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Submitted on : Monday, October 21, 2013 - 10:12:10 AM
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Mélanie Guyot. Les thérapies anti-angiogéniques : entre espoir et réalité. Vers l'identification de marqueurs prédictifs et de nouvelles cibles thérapeutiques dans le traitement du cancer du rein. Sciences agricoles. Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013NICE4056⟩. ⟨tel-00875097⟩

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