La production organisée de l'ordre. Contrôler des gares et des centres commerciaux à Lyon et à Milan

Abstract : This work addresses the issues of security, social control and focuses on the problem of the production of order in urban spaces such as railway stations and shopping centers. Which actors follow which security policies towards which social groups and why? The answer is based on theoretical work and on fieldwork carried out in four sites: two railway stations and two shopping centers in Lyon and Milan. The methods employed include direct observation, more than 90 interviews and archival research. To explain how order is produced, it is necessary to articulate the various levels of analysis in sociology (micro, meso, macro). The thesis is therefore organized around three problems. The first problem is that of the actors of the production of order and the stakes which animate the definition of the security policies that they implement. Private actors and public actors are animated by different logics which depend on the stakes of their auspices. The police have stakes of public order, which lead them to follow specific security policies. Shopping centers and railway companies have commercial stakes, which lead them to follow different policies. Competition within the same space creates tensions which are resolved differently in France and Italy according to the institutional context. The second problem is that of the power relationships one can find at the micro level on each space between the actors of the production of order and the populations considered as potentially threatening. Fieldwork shows that the majority of these populations manage to establish a power relationship that constrains organizations to implement more tolerant security policies. The actual security policies are not just socially defined, they emerge out of the micro-level daily interactions with the deviant populations. The third problem is that of the relationship between the production of order and immigration. In Lyon and Milan, in both shopping centers and both railway stations, the populations considered as threatening by the police and commercial stakeholders are invariably the immigrants in Italy and the children of immigrants in France. This finding raises a problem of interpretation: is the penal focus on immigrants a functional response to over-delinquency or is it over-criminalization of particular social groups? Data show that the question cannot be reduced to the over-delinquency of immigrants, nor it is a by-product of the labor market. In the two countries, interviews reveal "us"/"them" classifications based on immigration. Immigrants incrimination relies therefore not only on rational-action schemes. This work therefore suggests the formulation of a functionalist hypothesis of the incrimination of the immigrants: in European societies facing profound social change, to merge the issues of crime and immigration may enhance the solidarity of the mainstream social group.
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François Bonnet. La production organisée de l'ordre. Contrôler des gares et des centres commerciaux à Lyon et à Milan. Sociologie. Institut d'études politiques de paris - Sciences Po, 2006. Français. ⟨tel-00874066⟩

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