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Propriétés électriques du ZnO monocristallin

Abstract : Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a II-VI semiconductor which appears as a very promising material for UV opto-electronic applications, in particular for the production of light emitting devices (LED). For these applications, ZnO presents strong advantages as a high exciton binding energy (60 meV ), a wide direct band gap (3.4 eV), the availability of large diameter bulk substrates for homoepitaxial growth of high quality thin films or nanostructures. However, the development of these applications is hampered by the difficulty to dope ZnO p-type. The impurity leading to an electrical conductivity associated with positive charge carriers (holes), and therefore the production of ZnO pn junctions have not yet been really identified.In this thesis we have studied the physical mechanisms that govern the electrical properties of ZnO single crystal and epilayers. The control of contacts (ohmic or Schottky) on different ZnO surfaces allowed us to carry out both transport measurements (resistivity and Hall effect) and capacitance measurements (C(V), Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and admittance spectroscopy).At first, we have studied the role of deep and shallow defects on the n-type conductivity of bulk ZnO samples obtained by Hydrothermal synthesis (HT) or by Chemical Vapor Transport (CVT). We also investigated the impact of post-growth annealing at high temperature under oxygen atmospheres on the transport properties of samples. Thanks to the previous results on the residual n-type doping, we have reported on several attempts to obtain p-type ZnO. We have discussed the potential of different candidates for the achievement of p-type doping and present our tentative experiments to try and demonstrate the reality, the ability and the stability of p-type doping by nitrogen implantation and arsenic diffusion. The nitrogen impurity has been chosen for oxygen substitution, which should allow the creation of acceptor levels in the ZnO band gap. We also studied arsenic as a potential p-type dopant, according to a model whereby arsenic substitutes for oxygen and, if associated with two zinc vacancies, forms a complex with a shallower ionization energy than in the case of direct oxygen substitution.In addition to the studies on bulk ZnO samples and attempts on p-type doping, we have also studied the electrical properties of thin film ZnO samples obtained by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy, either intentionally or unintentionally doped. Correlations between SIMS and C(V) measurements allowed us to highlight especially the importance of aluminum as a residual impurity in epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates.In this thesis we have clarified intentional or unintentional n-type doping mechanisms in ZnO single crystal samples. We have also identified impurities and growth parameters responsible for the residual n-type doping. This understanding is a crucial and preliminary step for understanding the doping mechanisms at stake in this material and is also necessary to achieve stable p-type conductivity, which is still the main challenge for the realization of optoelectronic devices based on ZnO.
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Submitted on : Friday, October 11, 2013 - 11:12:38 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, June 11, 2020 - 5:04:06 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Sunday, January 12, 2014 - 4:29:23 AM


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  • HAL Id : tel-00872067, version 1




Stéphane Brochen. Propriétés électriques du ZnO monocristallin. Autre. Université de Grenoble, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENI079⟩. ⟨tel-00872067⟩



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