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Evaluation des performances hygrothermiques d'une paroi par simulation numérique : application aux parois en béton de chanvre

Abstract : The use of hemp concrete, an environmentally friendly material, participates in a process of sustainable development in the residential sector. The association of porous vegetable fibers and a grainy mineral matrix gives a strong porosity and a limited density. Therefore hemp concrete has very interesting hygrothermal properties: a low thermal conductivity which offers good insulation capacities and a high moisture permeability which favors moisture transport. Besidesit is characterized by a hysteretic hygrothermal behavior governed by humidity and temperature which determines the evolution of its properties. This work deals with the evaluation of the hemp concrete hygrothermal response to climatic stresses. This objective is a main issue for the development of that kind of material faced with energetics problemsand the notion of comfort feeling in buildings. The evaluation of the hygrothermal behavior of a hemp concrete wallis linked to coupled heat and mass transfer. Mass transfer is governed by moisture transport in liquid and vapor forms. Heat transfer is mainly carried out by conduction and phase change in pores. Moreover in building physics, external surfaces of porous walls are submitted to solar radiation, rain or phenomenon of natural and forced convectiondue to ambient temperature and wind or ventilation systems. Firstly a numerical HAM transfer model (HAM: Heat, Air and Moisture) able to take into account these phenomena is built. In order to feed this model, the modeling of hemp concrete hygrothermal properties is lead based on experimental characterization campaigns. The study points out also the influence of the hemp concrete hygrothermal properties depending on a variation of the density. The results of the model are thus compared to the experimental measures collected on a hemp concrete wall in a biclimatic room ofwhich regulation follows a chosen program. A sensitivity analysis to the parameters of the model enables to show that the hygrothermal transfer is very influenced by the moisture content parameter. The thermal dependence of the hysteretic effect determines the hydric capacity of moisture storage and the heat and moisture transportthrough the material. The consideration of this phenomenon is necessary to well understand and reproduce the hygrothermal behavior of the hemp concrete. The modeling of the hysteresis gives simulated results in good agreement with the experimental ones obtained under hydric and thermal cyclic stresses. Moreover the work is extended to the numerical study of the influence of the nature and the thickness of a coating layer on the external surfaces of a hemp concrete wall. Finally a discussion about the notion of hygrothermal comfort is carried out on a wall in real configuration ofoperation under typical annual climatic conditions
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Submitted on : Tuesday, October 8, 2013 - 3:32:27 PM
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Yacine Ait Oumeziane. Evaluation des performances hygrothermiques d'une paroi par simulation numérique : application aux parois en béton de chanvre. Génie civil. INSA de Rennes, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013ISAR0007⟩. ⟨tel-00871004⟩

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