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Développement d'un vecteur virus de la vaccine, réplicatif et atténué, pour la vaccination antivariolique et pour la vaccination contre la fièvre hémorragique à virus Ebola

Abstract : Ebola virus, causing a lethal haemorrhagic fever and variola virus, the agent of smallpox are potential biological weapons. There is no treatment and no prophylaxis authorised against Ebola, although some vaccine viral vectors were developed these last years. Concerning smallpox, several types of vaccines exist against smallpox (based on vaccinia virus), first generation that allowed the disease eradication but responsible of some post-vaccination complications and some non-replicative 3rd generation vaccines which are safe but not very immunogenic. We have recently developed several vaccinia virus (VACV) vectors by deletion of some virulence genes, and we have evaluated their safety, immunogenicity and efficacy as smallpox vaccine in mice and used one of them as a bivalent vaccine against Ebola and smallpox. These viral vectors are higly attenuated and replicative competent. They induce a neutralizing specific-VACV antibodies response similar to that of the historical vaccine and induce VACV-specific CD8+ and CD4+ immune responses efficient to protect immunocompetent mouse model intranasally infected by cowpox virus, simulating variola virus infection.The most safety and immunogenic vaccinia virus vector, named MVL, has been used to construct a vector encoding the Ebola glycoprotein (EGP) for immunization against Ebola. The native EGP gene or a chimeric EGP gene (a fusion between the EGP ectodomain and the transmembrane domain of the VACV B5 glycoprotein) have been cloned into the viral vector genome. These two recombinant vaccine candidates induce specific humoral immune responses against Ebola and vaccinia virus in immunocompetent mice. In conclusion, we have developed several vaccine candidates against smallpox as immunogenic and protective as the historical vaccine and as safe as 3rd generation vaccines. One of these candidates, MVL, has been used as a viral vector to express the heterologous glycoprotein EGP, against which it induce a strong humoral immune response.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00870840
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Julie Dimier. Développement d'un vecteur virus de la vaccine, réplicatif et atténué, pour la vaccination antivariolique et pour la vaccination contre la fièvre hémorragique à virus Ebola. Sciences agricoles. Université de Grenoble, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENV070⟩. ⟨tel-00870840⟩

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