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Les effets de l'augmentation de la masse adipeuse sur la fonction cardiovasculaire ex vivo en fonction du stress oxydant et de la fonction mitochondriale : rôle du vieillissement du régime alimentaire

Abstract : The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide at an alarming rate leading to the development of metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. Previous studies have highlightened the association between fat accumulation, especially in the abdominal area, and the development of cardiovascular diseases. An increase in body and fat mass characterizes normal aging, which is considered per se the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In the industrialized societies, the incidence of cardiovascular diseases occurring with age is even more increased due to the Western-world lifestyle habits (e.g. obesogenic diets, sedentariness) that contribute to excess fat accumulation. Accordingly, the overall goal of this work was to understand how body changes occurring from youth to middle age were related to middle age cardiovascular complications and how diet-induced obesity altered these aspects. Initially, we demonstrated that in normal aging middle-aged hearts of Wistar rats were characterized by lower restoration of the cardiac mechanical activity during reperfusion ex vivo due to impaired recovery of the coronary flow and insufficient oxygen supply. This was also related to the presence of increased systemic oxidative stress following the increase in fat mass that occurred from youth to young adulthood. A progressive decline in the endothelium-dependent dilatation of the coronary microvasculature also occurred with aging, which was due to different functional behaviours of the endothelial and smooth muscular cells, which appeared to be related to the energy metabolism and oxidative stress. High-fat diet-induced obesity triggered a number of alterations in the body, metabolic and cardiovascular characteristics of the animals during this aging period. The excess abdominal fat accumulation provoked the increase of oxidative stress at the systemic, cytosolic and mitochondrial levels accompanied by biochemical alterations in the glucose and lipid metabolisms such as hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The hyperphagia-induced obesity and the related type 2 diabetes in the Zucker diabetic fatty rats provoked also severe insulin resistance. Both models of diet-induced obesity were characterized by decreased ex vivo cardiac function related to mitochondrial energy metabolism and oxidative stress. Furthermore, they were both characterized by an adaptation of the coronary microvasculature whose reactivity was enhanced in the first case and maintained in the second, in order to meet the elevated metabolic demands of the hearts due to obesity. These adaptations were due to different mechanisms in these two models of obesity. In conclusion, our work revealed a temporal pattern of changes concerning the body and metabolic characteristics, mitochondrial energy metabolism, cardiac function and coronary microvascular reactivity that occur from youth to middle age either under normal or obesogenic-related conditions. These results encourage further research in order to explain the mechanisms related to these alterations. Interventions aiming at reducing the fat mass that increases with age or diet would be of great interest in an effort to delay the cardiovascular
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00870794
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Evangelia Mourmoura. Les effets de l'augmentation de la masse adipeuse sur la fonction cardiovasculaire ex vivo en fonction du stress oxydant et de la fonction mitochondriale : rôle du vieillissement du régime alimentaire. Sciences agricoles. Université de Grenoble, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENV072⟩. ⟨tel-00870794⟩

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