M. S. Alistair, Food polysaccharids and theirs applications. 270 Madison Avenue, pp.139-205, 1995.

M. S. Alistair and C. C. Shirley, Gums and mucilages Food polysaccharids and theirs applications, pp.377-438, 1995.

A. Amin, . Mat, A. S. Ahmad, Y. Y. Yin, N. Yahya et al., Extraction, purification and characterization of durian (Durio zibethinus) seed gum, Food Hydrocolloids, vol.21, issue.2, pp.273-279, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2006.04.004

D. M. Anderson and W. Wang, The characterization of gum arabic (Acacia senegal) samples from Uganda, Food Hydrocolloids, vol.5, issue.3, pp.297-306, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/S0268-005X(09)80115-X

D. M. Anderson and W. Weiping, FROM UGANDA: CHARACTERISTIC N.M.R. SPECTRA, AMINO ACID COMPOSITIONS, AND GUM/SOIL CATIONIC RELATIONSHIPS, International Tree Crops Journal, vol.2, issue.3, pp.167-179, 1992.
DOI : 10.1080/02652039109373991

E. Andrade, The Viscosity of Liquids., Nature, vol.125, issue.3148, p.309, 1930.
DOI : 10.1038/125309b0

A. Balla, C. Blecker, M. Oumarou, . Paquot, and C. Deroane, Mise au point de pains composites à base de mélanges farines de sorgho-blé et analyse texturale, Biotechnol, 1993.

C. Baravian, A. Lalante, and A. Parke, Vane rheometry with a large, finite gap, Appl. Rheol, vol.12, pp.81-87, 2002.

W. H. Bearce, Carbohydrates Chemistry and Biochemistry, the Introduction to Polysaccharids Chemistry, 1613.

R. Borsali, T. A. Vilgis, and M. Benmouna, Viscosity of weakly charged polyelectrolyte solutions: the mode-mode coupling approach, Macromolecules, vol.25, issue.20, pp.5313-5317, 1992.
DOI : 10.1021/ma00046a032

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00310347

H. O. Bouveng, P. J. Garegg, and B. Lindberg, Position of the O-Acetyl Groups in Birch Xylan., Acta Chemica Scandinavica, vol.14, p.742, 1958.
DOI : 10.3891/acta.chem.scand.14-0742

Y. Brummer, W. Cui, and Q. Wang, Extraction, purification and physicochemical characterization of fenugreek gum, Food Hydrocolloids, vol.17, issue.3, pp.229-236, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0268-005X(02)00054-1

F. Busson, Plantes alimentaires de L'Ouest africain, étude Botanique, Biologique et chimique, p.315, 1965.

S. J. Candau, E. Hirsch, and R. Zana, Light scattering investigation in the behaviuor of semidilute aqueous micellar solutions of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Analogy of semidilute of polymer solutions, Journal of Colloids and interface Science, vol.105, p.52, 1985.

R. W. Cawley, The role of wheat flour pentosans in baking. II.???Effect of added flour pentosans and other gums on gluten-starch loaves, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol.74, issue.12, pp.834-838, 1964.
DOI : 10.1002/jsfa.2740151204

G. Champetier and L. Et-monnerie, Introduction à la Chimie macromoléculaire. Edition Masson et C ie, 1969.

A. S. Chevassus, J. C. Favier, J. Orstom, and A. , Technologie traditionnelle et valeur nutritionnelle des bières de Sorgho au Cameroun. Cahier de Nutrition et de Diététique, p.9, 1976.

B. N. Chikamai and W. B. Banks, Gum arabic from Acacia senegal (L) Willd. in Kenya, Food Hydrocolloids, vol.7, issue.6, pp.521-534, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/S0268-005X(09)80246-4

C. Collard, P. Andreu, J. C. Martinez, and E. Armero, Optimization of hydrocolloid addition to improve wheat bread dough functionality: a response surface methodology study, Food Hydrocolloids, vol.13, issue.6, pp.467-475, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0268-005X(99)00030-2

G. Couarraze and J. L. Grossiord, Initiation à la Rhéologie. 3 ème édition, p.300, 2000.

P. Coussot and C. Ancey, Rhéophysique des pâtes et des suspensions, 1999.

J. Crank, Mathematics of diffusion, 1975.

C. Dagorn-scaviner, J. Gueguen, and J. Lefebvre, Emulsifying Properties of Pea Globulins as Related to Their Adsorption Behaviors, Journal of Food Science, vol.35, issue.501, pp.335-341, 1987.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1987.tb06607.x

A. P. Dakia, B. Whathelet, and M. Paquot, Influence de la teneur en galactose sur les interactions moléculaires et sur les propriétés physico-chimiques des galactomannanes en solution, Biotechnol. Agron. Soc. Environ, vol.14, issue.1, pp.313-223, 2010.

R. W. Danishefky and F. A. Bettelheim, The Introduction to Polysaccharids Chemistry, the : carbohydrates Chemistry and biochemistry 2nd edition, 1970.

S. Davidou, L. Meste, M. Debever, E. Bekeart, and D. , A contribution to the study of staling of white bread: Effect of water and hydrocolloids. Food hydrocolloids, pp.375-383, 1996.

D. Brito, A. C. Sierakowski, M. R. Reicher, F. Feitosa, J. P. De-paula et al., Dynamic rheology study of Sterculia striata and karaya polysaccharids in aqueaous solution, Food Hydrocolloids, issue.19, pp.861-867, 2005.

D. Man and J. M. , Principles of Food Chemistry. 2 nd Edition, 1990.

D. Paula, R. C. Rodrigues, and J. F. , Composition and rheological properties of cashew tree gum, the exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale L, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol.26, issue.3, pp.171-181, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0144-8617(95)00006-S

D. Cloiseaux and J. , Lagrangien theory of polymer solutions at intermediate concentrations, J. Phys, pp.36-281, 1975.

E. Dickinson, Food polymers, gels and colloids, Royal Society of Chemistry, Special publication, vol.82, 1991.
DOI : 10.1533/9781845698331

M. Doi and S. F. Edwards, The theory of polymer dynamics. International series of monographs on physics, p.386, 1986.

J. L. Doublier and B. Launay, Propriétés rhéologiques des solutions de gommes Guar- Dechema Monographien, pp.197-210, 1974.

J. L. Doublier, J. M. Lisch, and B. Launay, Agent de textures alimentaires: épaississants et gélifiants, p.69, 1975.

&. Dupriez and P. De-leener, Jardins et vergers d'Afrique. Collection Terre et Vie. Edition, l'Harmattan, 1987.

H. Eyring, The Activated Complex in Chemical Reactions, The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol.3, issue.2, p.107, 1935.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1749604

J. C. Favier, J. Ireland-ripert, and . Toquec, Répertoire générale des aliments, 2 ième édition, Feinberg M Inna Cnva, Tec. et Doc, 1996.

E. H. Fischer and E. A. Stein, DNS colorimetric Determination of Available Carbohydrates in foods, Biochemical Preparations, vol.8, pp.30-37, 1961.

M. Fontanille and Y. Et-gnanou, Chimie et Physico-chimie des polymères, 2002.

F. Garcia-ochoa and J. A. Casas, Viscosity of locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua) gum solutions, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol.12, issue.1, pp.97-100, 1992.
DOI : 10.1002/jsfa.2740590114

A. Guarda, C. M. Rossel, C. Bendito, and M. J. Galotto, Different hydrocolloids as bread improvers and antistaling agents, Food Hydrocolloids, vol.18, issue.2, pp.241-247, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0268-005X(03)00080-8

M. Glicksman, Gum technology in the food industry, p.555, 1969.

M. Glicksman and R. E. Sand, Gum arabic, Industrial Gums, Food polysaccharids and theirs applications, pp.377-438, 1973.

M. Glicksman, Functional properties of hydrocolloids Food Hydrocolloids, pp.47-99, 1982.

H. S. Green, Thermomolecular theory of fluids, 1952.

G. J. Grubben and O. A. Denton, Ressources végétales de l'Afrique tropicale 2. légumes [traduction de plan : Ressources of Tropical Africa 2. Vegetables, 2004.

A. Guarda, C. M. Rossel, C. Bendito, and M. J. Galotto, Different hydrocolloids as bread improvers and antistaling agents, Food Hydrocolloids, vol.18, issue.2, pp.241-247, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0268-005X(03)00080-8

J. Guguen, J. Lefebvre, and C. Dagorn-scaviner, Propriétés d'adsorption des globulines de pois et propriétés émulsifiantes, pp.105-117, 1988.

P. Harris, Food Gels, 1990.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-009-0755-3

F. R. Huebner and J. S. Wall, Polysaccharides interactions with wheat proteins and flour doughs, Cereal Chem, vol.56, issue.2, pp.68-73, 1979.

B. Janaki and R. B. Sashidhar, Physico-chemical analysis of gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium): a potential food additive, Food Chemistry, vol.61, issue.1-2, pp.231-236, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0308-8146(97)00089-7

H. Joshi and V. P. Kapoor, Cassia grandis Linn. f. seed galactomannan: structural and crystallographical studies, Carbohydrate Research, vol.338, issue.18, pp.1907-1912, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0008-6215(03)00258-1

R. W. Jones and S. R. Erlander, Interaction between wheat protein and dextrans Cereal Chem, pp.447-456, 1967.

G. Jongh, The formation of dough and bread structure. The ability of starch to form structures and improving effect of glyceryl monostearate, Cereal Chemistry, vol.38, p.140, 1961.

G. Jongh, T. Slim, and H. Greve, Teig und Brot sun stärke obne kleber Bread from non-wheat flour, Food Technology, vol.165, issue.22, pp.55-66, 1967.

G. Jongh, T. Slim, and H. Greve, Bread without gluten. The Bakers Digest Functional properties of some local African food hydrocolloids, In: Ndjouenkeu R, pp.24-29, 1968.

P. Harris, Food Gels, 1990.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-009-0755-3

F. R. Huebner and J. S. Wall, Polysaccharides interactions with wheat proteins and flour doughs, Cereal Chem, vol.56, issue.2, pp.68-73, 1979.

J. C. Kim and D. De-ruiter, Bread from non-wheat flour, Food Technology, vol.22, pp.55-66, 1968.

S. K. Kim and B. L. D-'appolonia, Note on a simplified procedure for the purification of Wheat flour pentosans, Ceral Chem, vol.53, issue.6, pp.871-873, 1976.

O. M. Kolawole, S. O. Oguntoye, O. Agbede, and A. B. Olayemi, <b>STUDIES ON THE EFFICACY OF <i>BRIDELIA FERRUGINEA</i> BENTH BARK EXTRACT FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT</b>, Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, vol.21, issue.2, pp.505-211, 2007.
DOI : 10.4314/bcse.v21i2.21199

. Kraemer, Molecular Weights of Celluloses and Cellulose Derivates, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, vol.30, issue.10, pp.1200-1203, 1938.
DOI : 10.1021/ie50346a023

K. Kulp, F. N. Hepburn, and T. A. Lehmann, Preparation of bread without gluten. The Baker's Digest, pp.34-38, 1974.

. Larousse, Grand Dictionnaire Encyclopédie complète, 1984.

&. Lin and A. S. Huang, Chemical composition and some physical properties of a watersoluble gum in taro (Colocasia esculenta) Food Chemistry, pp.403-409, 1993.

E. Lopez, Organisation et stratégies des petites entreprises agroalimentaires à Maroua (Nord-Cameroun), Thèse de Doctorat, p.362, 1996.

D. Lorient and B. Colas, Propriétés des protéines aux interfaces : Relations avec les propriétés émulsifiantes et moussantes. Les cahiers de l ENS-BANA, pp.33-47, 1988.

D. Lorient, B. Colas, and M. Lemeste, Propriétés fonctionnelles des macromolécules Alimentaires ENS-BANA, pp.48-76, 1988.

J. C. Maïs and M. Madernt, Botanique systématique des Angiospermes en Afrique sahelienne soudanienne, Guinéenne C, E.R.D.I, 1993.

C. W. Macosko, Rheology, principles, measurements and applications, United States of America, p.472, 1994.

B. Z. Mat and A. R. Zainiah, Rheological properties of cashew gum, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol.29, pp.1-25, 1995.

W. Meer, Handbook of water-soluble gums and resins, pp.94-100, 1980.

E. Mettler and W. Seibel, Effect of emulsifiers and hydrocolloids on whole wheat bread quality: A response surface methodology study, Cereal chemistry, vol.70, pp.373-377, 1993.

M. Moll and N. Moll, Additifs alimentaires et auxiliaires Technologiques, pp.103-127, 1998.

W. R. Moore and M. Murphy, Viscosities of dilute solutions of polyvinyl acetate, Journal of Polymer Science, vol.56, issue.164, p.519, 1962.
DOI : 10.1002/pol.1962.1205616423

R. G. Morley, Utilisation of hydrocolloids in formulated foods, 1984.

E. R. Morris, Industrial hydrocolloidsThe structure, Dynamics and Equilibrum properties of colloidal systems, pp.449-470, 1990.

E. R. Morris, Rheology of hydrocolloids Gums and Stabilisers for the food Industry, pp.57-78, 1984.

E. R. Morris, Industrial hydrocolloids The structure, Dynamics and Equilibrum properties of colloidal systems, pp.449-470, 1990.

E. R. Morris, Shear-thinning of ???random coil??? polysaccharides: Characterisation by two parameters from a simple linear plot, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol.13, issue.1, pp.85-96, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/0144-8617(90)90053-U

S. Morton, Bread without wheat Functional properties of some local African food hydrocolloids, In: Ndjouenkeu R, p.165, 1988.

R. Ndjouenkeu, C. M. Mbofung, and F. X. Etoa, Etude comparative de quelques techniques de transformations du maïs en farines dans l'Adamaoua. Céreales en régions chaudes. Aupelf-Uref, pp.179-186, 1989.

R. Ndjouenkeu and J. O. Akingbala, Extraction et étude de quelques propriétés fonctionnelles des gommes d'origine végétales (en vue de leur utilisation en panification) : Résultats préliminaires, Biosciences Proceeding, vol.2, pp.261-267, 1991.

R. Ndjouenkeu, Functional properties of some local African food hydrocolloids, p.165, 1995.

R. Ndjouenkeu, J. O. Akingbala, R. K. Richardson, and E. R. Morris, ???Weak gel??? properties of khan flour from Belschmiedia sp.???a traditional food thickener from tropical West Africa, Food Hydrocolloids, vol.9, issue.3, pp.165-172, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/S0268-005X(09)80212-9

R. Ndjouenkeu, F. M. Goycoolea, E. R. Morris, and J. O. Akingbala, Rheology of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) and dika nut (Irvingia gabonensis) polysaccharides, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol.29, issue.3, pp.263-269, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0144-8617(96)00016-1

R. Ndjouenkeu, J. O. Akingbala, and G. B. Oguntimein, Emulsifying properties of three African food hydrocolloids: okra (Hibiscus esculentus), dika nut (Irvingia gabonensis), and khan (Belschmiedia sp.) Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, pp.245-255, 1997.

Y. Nedonchelle, Sur la rhéologie des solutions concentrées de carbohydrates macromoléculaires, 1968.

N. Bi, S. A. Traoré, F. Soro, T. Y. Souza, and A. , Etudes phytochimique et pharmacologique de Bridelia ferruginea benth (euphorbiaceae) sur la motricité du taenia coli de cobaye, Afrique Science, issue.2, pp.5-305, 2009.

E. Noumi, Les plantes à épices, condiments et à aromates du Cameroun, Thèse de Docteur de spécialité en Sciences biologiques ; option éthnobotanique, pp.128-164, 1984.

P. A. Nguegang, L'agriculture urbaine et péri-urbaine à Yaoundé : analyse multifonctionnelle d'une activité montante en économie de survie, Thèse de doctorat : Ecole Interfacultaire de Bioingénieurs, p.189, 2008.

T. Paseephol, D. Small, and F. Sherkat, Process optimisation for fractionating Jerusalem artichoke fructans with ethanol using response surface methodology, Food Chemistry, vol.104, issue.1, pp.73-80, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.10.078

A. S. Perlin, F. A. Whisthler, and . Bettelheim, In the Introduction to Polysaccharids Chemistry in the: Danishefky RoylCarbohydrates Chemistry and Biochemistry, Cereal Chem, vol.282, p.382, 1951.

R. H. Perry, D. W. Green, and J. O. Maloney, Perry's Chemical Engineerings' Handbook, 1984.

G. O. Phillips, D. J. Wedlock, and P. A. Williams, Gums and Stabilisers for food Industry, pp.137-161, 1992.
DOI : 10.1039/9781847551214

F. Pignon, A. Magnin, and J. M. Piau, Thixotropic behavior of clay dispersions: Combinations of scattering and rheometric techniques, Journal of Rheology, vol.42, issue.6, pp.42-1349, 1998.
DOI : 10.1122/1.550964

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00341221

A. J. Pinckney, W. T. Greenaway, and L. Zeleny, Further developments in the sedimentation test for wheat quality, Cereal Chem, vol.34, pp.16-25, 1957.

D. A. Ress, E. R. Morris, D. Thom, and M. K. , Shapes and interactions of carbohydrate chains, pp.195-290, 1982.

J. A. Rendelman, Composition and rheological properties of cashew tree gum, the exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale L, Food Chem. Carbohydrate Polymers, vol.3, issue.26, pp.127-162, 1978.

P. D. Ribotta, G. T. Perez, A. E. Leon, and M. C. Anon, Effect of emulsifier and guar gum on micro structural, rheological and baking performance of frozen bread dough, Food Hydrocolloids, vol.18, issue.2, pp.305-313, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0268-005X(03)00086-9

M. Rinaudo, Relation between the molecular structure of some polysaccharides and original properties in sol and gel states, Food Hydrocolloids, vol.15, issue.4-6, pp.433-440, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0268-005X(01)00041-8

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00307674

M. Rinaudo, Structures, properties and functions. Food Hydrocolloids, 1994.

W. E. Rochefort and S. Middleman, Rheology of Xanthan Gum: Salt, Temperature, and Strain Effects in Oscillatory and Steady Shear Experiments, Journal of Rheology, vol.31, issue.4, pp.337-369, 1987.
DOI : 10.1122/1.549953

R. A. Dunstan, D. E. , &. Boger, and D. V. , Characterisation of xanthan gum solutions using dynamic light scattering and rheology, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol.42, pp.159-174, 2000.

R. H. Weei and Y. C. , Rheological properties of the water-soluble mucilage of a green laver, Monostroma nitidium, Journal of Applied phycology, vol.13, pp.481-488, 2001.

C. M. Rossel, J. A. Rojas, and C. Benedito-de-barber, Influence of hydrocolloids on dough rheology and bread quality, Food Hydrocolloids, vol.15, issue.1, pp.75-81, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0268-005X(00)00054-0

A. Rotsch, Chemische und backtechnische Untersuchungen an kunstlichen teigen Brot und Gebaeck, 8, 129, Bread from nonwheat flour. Food Technology, pp.55-66, 1954.

A. Roudier, Introduction to Polysaccharids Chemistry Assoc Carbohydrates Chemistry and Biochemistry, Tech. Ind. Papetière Bull, vol.22, p.53, 1954.

E. Rotureau, Dextranes amphiphiles: adsorption aux interfaces liquide / liquide et application à la stabilisation d'émulsions, Thèse de Doctorat I.N.P.L, 2005.

S. J. Sagou, Influence des cations métalliques sur les propriétés physico-chimiques, 0200.

S. J. Sagou, Influence des cations métalliques sur les propriétés physico-chimiques du carboxyméthyl-dextrane fonctionnalisé, Thèse de Doctorat, p.168, 2008.

N. R. Saidou, J. B. Tchatchueng, and A. Ali, Caractérisation physicochimique et fonctionnelle des gommes hydrocolloïdes de quelques légumes locaux. Communication présentée à la conférence internationale sur : la Nutrition, 2008.

S. Kök, M. Hill, S. E. Mitchell, and J. R. , A comparison of the rheological behavior of the crude and refined locust bean gum preparation during thermal processing. Carbohydrate Polymer, pp.261-265, 1999.

G. R. Sanderson, Polysaccharids in foods, Food Technol, vol.35, issue.83, pp.50-57, 1981.

L. P. Sandjo, S. I. Kuete, V. Hannewald, P. Yemloul, M. Rincheval et al., A. Rich. (Tiliaceae), Helvetica Chimica Acta, vol.116, issue.9, pp.1748-1759, 2009.
DOI : 10.1002/hlca.200800427

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00422378

G. Schramm, A practical approach to rheological and rheometry. 2 nd Edition, p.285, 2000.

J. P. Sighu and A. S. Bawa, Dough characteristics and baking studies of wheat flour fortified with xanthan gum, International Journal of Food Properties, vol.5, pp.1-11, 2002.

V. Singh, V. Srivastava, M. Pandey, R. Sethi, and R. Sanghi, Ipomoea turpethum seeds: a potential source of commercial gum, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol.51, issue.3, pp.357-359, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0144-8617(02)00186-8

V. Singh, V. Srivastava, M. Pandey, R. Sethi, and R. Sanghi, A non-ionic watersoluble seed gum from Ipomea campanulata, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol.74, pp.40-44, 2003.

J. M. Stevels, Légumes traditionnels du Cameroun : Etude agro Botanique Division de phytotaxonomie, 1990.

W. Sittikijyothin, D. Torres, and M. P. Gonçalves, Modelling the rheological behaviour of galactomannan aqueous solutions, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol.59, issue.3, pp.339-350, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.carbpol.2004.10.005

K. G. Shalini and A. Laxmi, Influence of additives on rheological characteristics of whole wheat dough and quality of chapatti (Indian unleavened flat bread). Part I- Hydrocolloids, Food Hydrocolloids, pp.119-117, 2007.

H. Tavakolipour and A. Kalbasi-ashtari, Influence of gum on dough properties and flat bread quality of two Persian wheat varieties Application of hydrocolloids as baking improvers, Journal of Food Process EngineeringIn Kohajdova Z. & Karovicova J. Chemical Papers, vol.30, issue.631, pp.74-87, 2007.

T. E. Timell, Methods Carbohyd. Chem.1, 301 In the: Introduction to Polysaccharids Chemistry in the: Danishefky Royl. Whisthler and F, A BettelheimCarbohydrates Chemistry and Biochemistry, vol.2, 1965.

B. Tinland and M. Rinaudo, Dependence of the stiffness of the xanthan chain on the external salt concentration, Macromolecules, vol.22, issue.4, pp.1863-1865, 1989.
DOI : 10.1021/ma00194a058

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00310097

I. Toufeili, S. Dagher, S. Shadarevian, A. Nouredine, M. Sarakbi et al., Formulation of gluten-free pocket-type flat breads: optimization of methylcellulose, gum Arabic and egg albumen levels by response surface methodology, Cereal Chem, vol.71, issue.6, pp.594-601, 1994.

S. Trachtenberg and A. M. Mayer, Biophysical properties of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage, Phytochemistry, vol.21, issue.12, pp.2835-2843, 1982.
DOI : 10.1016/0031-9422(80)85052-7

I. Toufeili, S. Dagher, S. Shadarevian, A. Noureddine, M. Sarakbi et al., Formulation of gluten-free pocket-type flat bread, Optimization of methylcellulose, gum-arabic and egg-albumin levels by response surface methodology, Cereal Chemistry, vol.71, pp.594-601, 1994.

G. Ullmann, Etude de la structure et de la biosynthèse d'un exsudat naturel de plante d'importance industrielle : la gomme arabique d'Acacia senegal, Thèse de Doctorat- Ingénieur, p.223, 1983.

A. Uzomah and R. N. Ahiligwo, Studies on the rheological properties and functional potentials of achi (Brachystegea eurycoma) and ogbono (Irvingia gabonesis) seed gums, Food Chemistry, vol.67, issue.3, pp.217-222, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00256-8

S. Vandana, S. Vasundhara, P. Meenakshi, S. Rupali, and S. Rashmi, Ipomea turpethum seeds: a potential source of commercial gum, Carbohydrate Polymers, issue.51, pp.357-359, 2003.

G. V. Vinogradov, A. Malkin, and . Ya, Rheology of Polymer, viscoelasticity and flow of polymer, pp.105-121, 1980.

V. T. Vinod, R. B. Sashidhar, K. I. Suresh, R. Rao, B. et al., Morphological, physico-chemical and structural characterization of gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium): A tree gum from India, Food Hydrocolloids, vol.22, issue.5, pp.899-915, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2007.05.006

B. Walker, Gums and Stabilisers in food formulations Gums and Stabilisers for food Industry, pp.137-161, 1984.

B. M. Watts, G. L. Ylimaki, L. E. Jeffery, and E. L. , Méthodes de base pour l'évaluation sensorielle des aliments. CRDI, p.159, 1991.

W. C. Wielinga, Galactomannans, Handbook of hydrocolloids, 2000.
DOI : 10.1533/9781845695873.228

C. A. Wilham, R. J. Dimler, and F. R. Senti, A note on the effect of neutral polysaccharides on dough mixing properties, Cereal Chem, vol.36, pp.558-563, 1959.

H. Winter, H. Urakawa, and K. Kajiwara, Analysis of Linear Viscoelasticity of a Crosslinking Polymer at the Gel Point, Journal of Rheology, vol.30, issue.2, pp.367-382, 2002.
DOI : 10.1122/1.549853

R. L. Whistler and J. N. Bemiller, Industrial gums: Polysaccharides and their derivatives, 1993.

X. Xiaojuan, L. Wei, and Z. Lina, Rheological behavior of Aeromonas gums in aqueous solutions, Food Hydrocolloids, vol.20, pp.723-729, 2006.

E. Yamazaki, O. Kurita, and Y. Matsumura, Hydrocolloid from leaves of Corchorus olitorius and its synergistic effect on ??-carrageenan gel strength, Food Hydrocolloids, vol.22, issue.5, pp.819-825, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2007.03.009

E. Yamazaki, O. Kurita, and Y. Matsumura, High viscosity of hydrocolloid from leaves of Corchorus olitorius L., Food Hydrocolloids, vol.23, issue.3, pp.655-660, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2008.03.012

E. I. Yaseen, T. J. Herald, F. M. Aramouni, and S. Alavi, Rheological properties of selected gum solutions, Food Research International, vol.38, issue.2, pp.111-119, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foodres.2004.01.013

Z. F. Youdom, Etude des traitements traditionnels des légumes-feuilles de Ngaoundéré. Mémoire d'ingénieur des travaux, 1994.

B. Walker, Gums and stabilisers in food formulations Gums and Stabilisers for the food Industry, pp.137-161, 1984.

P. J. Whitcomb and C. W. Makosko, Rheology of Xanthan Gum, Journal of Rheology, vol.22, issue.5, pp.493-505, 1978.
DOI : 10.1122/1.549485

J. P. Wolff, Manuel d'analyse des corps gras, p.519, 1968.