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Propriétés physico-chimiques et fonctionnelles des gommes hydrocolloïdes des écorces de Triumfetta cordifolia et Bridelia thermifolia

Abstract : Triumfetta cordifolia and Bridelia thermifolia are two shrubs of tropical Africa whose gums extracted from fresh or dried barks are confined to traditional uses, particularly in the kitchen (thickening and flavoring properties in sauces and improvement of the texture of bakery ptoducts) and in the decantation process of the sorghum based traditionnal beer (bili-bili). In order to identify the nature of the gums responsible for these properties and assess their potentials for valorization, the chemical composition (proteins, polysaccharides, minerals and fiber) of barks was determined. The gums were extracted, and characterized for their chemical (monosaccharide composition and minerals) and physical (rheological behavior of extracts, molecular weight, intrinsic viscosity and radius of gyration) properties. Then, the combined effects of environmental factors (temperature, pH and salt concentration [NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2]) influencing the viscosity was analyzed using a central composite design. Finally application test of these gums in preparing doughnuts from maize and sorghum flour was carried out. The results of chemical analyzes showed that polysaccharides dominated in the barks (52 and 55% respectively for B.thermifolia and T. cordifolia) and in extracts (76 and 80% respectively for B.thermifolia and T. cordifolia), with levels 5-8 times higher than those of proteins. This allowed to hypothesize that these polysaccharides are responsible for the thickening properties demonstrated by the extracts. These properties are not be affected by the drying of the bark. The polysaccharides of the extracts are mainly composed of rhamnose (24.51%), galactose (15.23%), glucuronic acid (25.51%) and galacturonic acid (20.23%). The significant presence of uronic acids justifies the persistence of minerals in the purified extracts. The molecular weights of polysaccharides are 6.14 x106 and 3.58x106 Da, respectively for T. cordifolia and B. thermifolia. On the physical level, their intrinsic viscosities and their gyration radius are relatively high (18.33 dl/g and 269.6 nm for T. cordifolia; 17.98 dl/g and 217.8 nm for B. thermifolia). The drying kinetics for barks of T. cordifolia and B. thermifolia presents two falling rate periods represented by two kinetic constants k1 and k2, which increase with increasing drying temperature. Viscosity of extracts decreases when barks are dried beyond 70°C. This may be probably the consequence of a conformational change of polysaccharides than the result of their degradation. The study of the rheological behavior of these polysaccharides indicates a shear thinning, viscoelastic and weak thixotropic behavior, with flowing pressures yield point between 0.2 and 5Pa and between 0.5 and 1Pa, respectively for T. cordifolia and B. thermifolia, at concentrations between 0.52 and 0.82 g/l. Temperature and monovalent cations (K+ and Na+) have a depressant effect on viscosity of gums, while weakly acidic and alkaline pH and divalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) increase it. The combined effect of these factors on the viscosity of gums is satisfactorily described by a second degree model. Analysis of interactions between factors of variation shows, for each factor, a range of values for which it contributes to the achievement of a zone of optimal viscosity. This zone offers a practical range for the choice of variable levels, depending on the desired viscosity. The incorporation of extracts of T. cordifolia (3.5 g/l) and B. thermifolia (11 g/l) in the maize or sorghum flour, improves significantly the swelling of the dough. The doughnuts obtained after baking are, from organoleptic point of view, comparable to wheat doughnuts.
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Clément Saidou. Propriétés physico-chimiques et fonctionnelles des gommes hydrocolloïdes des écorces de Triumfetta cordifolia et Bridelia thermifolia. Autre. Université de Grenoble; Université de Ngaoundéré (Cameroun), 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENI080⟩. ⟨tel-00870761⟩

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