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Synthèse de nouveaux types de nanocristaux semi-conducteurs pour application en cellules solaires

Abstract : In order to be cost-effective, photovoltaic energy conversion needs to improve the solar cell efficiencies while decreasing the production costs. Nanocrystal based solar cells could fulfil these requirements through solution-processing, band gap and energy level engineering. PbS nanocrystal thin films already proved their potential for use as solar cell active materials with power conversion efficiencies approaching 7%. However, since lead based compounds are not compatible with European regulations and present high risks for health and environment, semiconductor nanocrystals of alternative materials have to be developed. This thesis focuses on novel types of semiconductor nanocrystals and their application in photovoltaics. The first part of the study deals with the synthesis of size- and shape-controlled CuInSe2 and SnS nanocrystals. An in-depth investigation of the structure of SnS nanocrystals using Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed their high oxidation sensitivity, which limits their usability in optoelectronic devices after air exposure. The second part deals with the thin film preparation and the surface ligand exchange of the obtained nanocrystals. Using a fully inorganic nanocrystal-surface ligand system, the deposited films exhibited a current density improved by four orders of magnitude as compared to the initial ligands. Finally, solar cell devices based on nanocrystal thin films were fabricated, which showed encouraging results with a clear photovoltaic effect when processed under inert atmosphere.
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Antoine Chassin de Kergommeaux. Synthèse de nouveaux types de nanocristaux semi-conducteurs pour application en cellules solaires. Sciences agricoles. Université de Grenoble, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENV057⟩. ⟨tel-00870418⟩

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