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Elastographie et retournement temporel des ondes de cisaillement : application à l'imagerie des solides mous

Abstract : The interaction between wave and matter has long been studied in Physics. In particular, regarding medical applications, wave propagation through the human body resulted in several imaging modalities, each of which uses a specific type of wave linked to a given physical property. The elasticity of soft biological tissues is directly linked to its shear wave speed. Thus, in Elastography, shear waves are tracked for non-invasive assessment of the mechanical properties of soft tissues. In this context, this thesis proposes a study of different elastography techniques from a basic point of view, as well as from its potential applications. Firstly, in this manuscript, the use of 1D transient elastography for the quantitative elasticity assessment of thin layered soft tissues is proposed. Experiments on three phantoms with different elasticities and plate thicknesses were performed. Experimental shear wave speed estimations inside the plate were obtained and validated with finite difference simulation. In addition, the Supersonic Shear Imaging (SSI) technique was performed. For the SSI technique, the propagating wave inside the plate is guided as a Lamb wave. Experimental SSI dispersion curves were fitted using a generalized Lamb model to retrieve the plate bulk shear wave speed. Finally both techniques resulted in similar shear wave speed estimations. The main advantage of 1D transient elastography is that the bulk shear wave speed can be directly retrieved from a time of flight measurement without requiring a dispersion model. Secondly, throughout this thesis, two novel quantitative imaging modalities for extracting the soft tissue's elasticity from a complex reverberated diffuse elastic field are deepen: Time Reversal Elastography (TRE) and the passive inverse filter. The goal of both techniques is to locally estimate the tissue's elasticity, by measuring the focal spot size in a virtual time reversal experiment involving shear waves. By studying the Physics of a time reversal process in soft solids, the feasibility of both techniques as a quantitative imaging techniques is demonstrated in vitro in bi-layer phantoms and in vivo in the liver-belly muscle, by using the physiological noise due to heartbeats and muscular activity. The efficiency of TRE decreases in the presence of a non-isotropic diffuse field. The use of the inverse filter adapted to a passive source configuration, restores the isotropy of the field. As a consequence, the resolution of the elasticity images is improved, leading to a better detection of small inclusions. In addition, the passive inverse filter allows to control the frequency dominating the time reversed field. This is exploited in the last part of the manuscript to conduct the first passive wave spectroscopy experiment in the volume of a soft solid. Two situations are considered: dispersion due to guided wave propagation in thin plates and wave dispersion due to viscosity effects.
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Javier Brum. Elastographie et retournement temporel des ondes de cisaillement : application à l'imagerie des solides mous. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université de Grenoble; Universidad de la Republica URUGUAY, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENY078⟩. ⟨tel-00870362⟩

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