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Modélisation de la microstructure des grains dans le silicium multicristallin pour le photovoltaïque

Abstract : The objective of this work is to explore and better understand the mechanisms responsible for the formation and growth of the grain structure in polycrystalline silicon for photovoltaic applications. During the solidification of polycrystalline silicon for the selection of the grain, control the distribution of their size and direction of growth are important parameters to obtain a material of good quality and homogeneous. These parameters directly influence the conversion efficiency of solar cells, through the capture and recombination of charge carriers and interactions with impurities. Grain structure in silicon photovoltaic evolves during solidification: Grain will disappear, others will appear, others will grow to give the final structure composed of large grains, small grains called 'grits' grain boundaries and twins. It is therefore important to understand the relationship between the parameters of the industrial process, the physico-chemical phenomena that occur during the growth and structure of grains in the silicon to predict its properties. In a first step, we established a model of development based on the grain growth type (faceted, rough or mixed), the kinetics of the various growths, the phenomenon of twinning and the selection of grains, we show that they are, with the initial germination, originally of the size and structure of the grains. Then, we propose an approach to numerical modeling of the evolution of lala grain structure during solidification. This method is based on the two-dimensional dynamic analysis of the grain boundary at the triple line grain-grain-liquid (rough, faceted) taking into account the phenomena produced at the macroscopic scale (the local temperature field) and microscopic (kinetic grain). The resulting model of the thermal coupling mechanisms and growth kinetics. We have developed a numerical model of grain growth in two dimensions, and we have introduced in the 2D-code MiMSiS which takes place in two steps: First, the calculation of transient macroscopic solidification of an ingot of silicon allows us to obtain the temperature field in the ingot and the precise position of the solid-liquid interface at different times as well as its speed, direction ( form) and the thermal gradients in the liquid and the solid. Second, the growth model is based on the geometrical description of grain boundary which depends on the kinetics of grain that border. It follows dependent criteria of the rough morphology or faceted interface. It relies on a network of insulated thermal calculation without influence in the first place. One objective of this model is to vary the process parameters and to measure their impact on the final crystalline structure. 2D calculation results are presented and discussed in relation to the experience.
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Amal Nadri. Modélisation de la microstructure des grains dans le silicium multicristallin pour le photovoltaïque. Autre. Université de Grenoble, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENI090⟩. ⟨tel-00870335⟩

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