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Usages et représentations sociales de l'ordinateur chez les élèves dans deux lycées du Cameroun. Esquisse d'une approche de l'appropriation des technologies

Abstract : This thesis focusses on how pupils in the General Leclerc and bilingual secondary school in Yaoundé (in Cameroon) appropriate computer technology and integrate this into their daily and socio-cognitive environment. In order to do this, the study examines both what the subjects actually do with this technology and what they think of it socially. On this basis, the study outlines an approach of the appropriation of technology and of techno-school innovation. The following question served as a guide: How do the learners concerned appropriate computer technology, and to what extent does the combined study of the uses and social representations they share on this technology, contribute to understand this appropriation and to approach technological innovation in school? The general hypothesis we have put forward is that this appropriation of computer technology is multifaceted, and involves some collective but also some very distinct aspects according to the different social categories of the subjects concerned and to the various contexts of use of this technology. By taking account of uses and representations, the study of this appropriation reveals this technology in its technical, educational, socio-cognitive and symbolic dimensions. This approach provides information about the forms and meanings of the technological appropriation, but also on its content, organization and conception as a symbolic field in which users position. This makes it possible to approach the appropriation of technologies and their implementation in school. Several theoretical approaches were used to examine this hypothesis. We adopted the approach of appropriation in order to study the use of computers. We also used social representation theory by referring to the model which integrates central core theory and principles of organisational theory. With regard to methodology, we opted for a qualitative approach while using quantitative data and paying particular attention to the words and practices of the respondents. We also used research techniques based on the discursive and practical expression of individuals: interview, association-network and direct observation. The first two of these techniques were administered to a group of 64 pupils who were chosen according to their gender, study cycle and familiarity with computers. The observation technique was conducted in the classrooms, multimedia resource centres, recreation classes and internet cafés. While the interview concentrated on all aspects of the subject studied, the association-network and direct observation methods concerned respectively the study of uses and social representations of computer. Analysis of the data gathered confirmed the research hypotheses. The thesis shows a variety of contextualized, differentiated and signified uses. Also, when faced with the different constraints, the pupils used contextual elements to imagine misappropriation strategies. Although constrained by the system, they act with and within this system in order to appropriate techno-school innovation. This work also presents a dense and varied representational field of computer technology. Within this field, computer technology is seen from different angles: physical, educational, communicational, recreational, extraordinary, mysterious, positive and negative. The study of the structure of this social representation shows that for these pupils, the computer is fundamentally a technological object which is principally used for research and communication purposes. One valuable piece of information that has been learned from this approach that integrates the uses and social representations of a technology, is that it provides information not only about the social dimension of the use and appropriation, but also about the content and structuring of this appropriation. This approach also makes it possible to consider this appropriation as a symbolic field in which the users of the technology interact according to their technological resources and competences capital. By considering the appropriation of technologies both in terms of uses and social representations, this approach also makes it possible to work out a global and participative approach of their integration into the school system.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00869697
Contributor : Emmanuel Beche <>
Submitted on : Friday, October 4, 2013 - 6:02:31 PM
Last modification on : Friday, October 23, 2020 - 4:40:27 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Sunday, January 5, 2014 - 4:25:38 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-00869697, version 1

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Béché Emmanuel. Usages et représentations sociales de l'ordinateur chez les élèves dans deux lycées du Cameroun. Esquisse d'une approche de l'appropriation des technologies. Education. Université de Liège, Belgique; Université de Yaoundé I, Cameroun, 2013. Français. ⟨tel-00869697⟩

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