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Effets de différents adjuvants de la famille de la toxine du choléra sur les lymphocytes T CD4 dans un modèle murin d'immunisation intrarectale avec des pseudoparticules virales de rotavirus

Abstract : Mucosal immunization is an important goal of vaccine development to protect against pathogens that use mucosa as portals of entry. However, the use of non-replicating antigens requires the addition of adjuvants.Cholera-like enterotoxins, cholera toxin (CT) from Vibrio cholerae and the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) from toxinogenic strains of E. coli, as well as the mutant LR-192G and their B subunits (CTB and LTB) have been shown to increase immune responses against unrelated co-administered antigens by mucosal routes. However, their mechanism of action is very complex and not completely understood and differences exist between holotoxins and B subunits and within molecules, differences exist between the models used.In this work, we have studied the effects of these five molecules on antibody responses and on CD4+ T cell responses in a murine model of intrarectal immunization using rotavirus-like particles (2/6-VLP). In non-immunized mice, we have shown that all molecules, except CTB, decreased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ natural regulatory T cells, probably by induction of apoptosis.In immunized mice, all molecules induced similar VLP-2/6 specific systemic and fecal antibody responses, teither he holotoxins, which are well known for their strong adjuvanticity or their B subunits with a less strong adjuvanticity but with also a tolerogenic effect in some studies.Regarding the CD4+ T cell response, antigen- and adjuvant- specific responses have been analysed. Important differences have been highlighted between the molecules. Among others things, only whole toxins (LT, LT-R192G and CT) trigger IL-2 production and activation of antigen specific memory CD4+CD25+Foxp3- T cells and at the same time antigen specific CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells are activated which may control the effector response (Feedback loop regulation) and avoid deleterious inflammation. In spite of these differences, all studied molecules triggered IL-17 production, suggesting the major role of this cytokine in adjuvanticity. We are currently comparing the intrarectal and intranasl routes in order to evaluate the role played by the route of immunisation in different effects of these molecules
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Fatou Thiam. Effets de différents adjuvants de la famille de la toxine du choléra sur les lymphocytes T CD4 dans un modèle murin d'immunisation intrarectale avec des pseudoparticules virales de rotavirus. Sciences agricoles. Université de Bourgogne, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011DIJOS102⟩. ⟨tel-00867205⟩

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