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Considération de la différenciation spatiale dans l'évaluation des impacts environnementaux locaux au moyen de l'Analyse du Cycle de Vie (ACV) : application à la gestion des déchets ménagers

Abstract : Municipal solid waste management focuses operational, strategic and environmental issues. We observed recently a development of measures to assess environmental impacts, which add the environmental impact to technical and economical calculations. Different environmental assessment tools can be used such as the Ecological Footprint, Carbon Footprint or Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Due to its ability to assess global and multiple issues, LCA is most often used. LCA assesses potential environmental impacts of a system or a product identifying and quantifying inputs and outputs of the system and converting them into potential environmental impacts. LCA is a relevant method to assess global impacts such as climate change or ozone layer depletion. But this method is not suitable to assess local impacts such as acidification, eutrophication or human toxicity due to the required precision to take into account the conditions of emission that potentially cause the impacts. This PhD work aims to develop a methodology of spatial assessment for two local environmental impacts (human toxicity and odours) and their integration to LCA. Advantages and limitations of this development are highlighted in the assessment of environmental performances of municipal solid waste systems. This sector is subjected to systematic environmental assessment during administrative planning and is prone the numerous controversies in which assessment of local impacts is often the heart of the matter. The methodology developed is based on the Site Dependent approach (modeling of impact with consideration of spatial and temporal characteristics of the emission source and the impacted environmental) and allows to take into account the fate of the substance and the exposure conditions to determine firstly the occurrence of the impact and secondly its intensity. This methodology aiming to integrate spatial differentiation in assessment of impacts, is applied to two local impacts reflecting strong local issues for many sectors, but particularly in the sector of waste treatment: human toxicity and odours. For the human toxicity assessment, the aim is to characterize impacts in more solid way than in conventional LCA that integrates spatial characteristics. For impact odour, the aim is to develop a first approach to quantify this impact, but not assessed by generic tools used for environmental assessment.
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Mathilde Marchand. Considération de la différenciation spatiale dans l'évaluation des impacts environnementaux locaux au moyen de l'Analyse du Cycle de Vie (ACV) : application à la gestion des déchets ménagers. Autre. Université Rennes 1, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013REN1S029⟩. ⟨tel-00866318⟩

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