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Theses

Résilience et application aux protocoles de routage dans les réseaux de capteurs

Ochirkhand Erdene-Ochir 1 
1 URBANET - Réseaux capillaires urbains
Inria Grenoble - Rhône-Alpes, CITI - CITI Centre of Innovation in Telecommunications and Integration of services
Abstract : Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are composed of a large number of low-cost, low power, and multifunctional sensor nodes that communicate at short distances through wireless links. In many cases these sensor nodes are deployed over a large geographic area in order to collect physical world data (temperature, humidity, pollution, etc.) and route them towards one or few destinations called the "sinks". This thesis focuses on the security issues of multi-hop routing protocols, especially on the resiliency concept. The rapid deployment capabilities, due to the lack of infrastructure, as well as the self organized and potentially fault-tolerant nature of WSNs make them attractive for multiple applications spanning from environmental monitoring (temperature, pollution, etc.) to building industrial automation (electricity/gas/water metering, event detection, home automation, etc.). Security is particularly challenging in WSNs. Because of their open and unattended deployment, in possibly hostile environments, powerful adversaries can easily launch Denial-of-Service (Dos) attacks, cause physical damage to sensors, or even capture them to extract sensitive information (encryption keys, identities, addresses, etc.). Consequently, the node compromise poses severe security and reliability concerns, since it allows an adversary to be considered as a legitimate node inside the network. After node compromise, an adversary can seek to disrupt the functionality of network layer by launching attacks such as node replication, Sybil, Selective forwarding, Sinkhole, Wormhole, etc. To cope with these "insider" attacks, stemming from node compromise, "beyond cryptography" algorithmic solutions must be envisaged to complement the traditional cryptographic solutions. Firstly, we propose the resiliency concept. Our goal is to propose a definition of the resiliency in our context (security of WSNs routing protocols) and a new metric to compare routing protocols. The originality of this metric is that we combine the graphical representation (qualitative information) with the aggregation method (quantitative information). We introduce a two dimensional graphical representation with multiple axes forming an equiangular polygon surface. This method allows to aggregate meaningfully several parameters and makes it easier to visually discern various tradeoffs, thus greatly simplifying the process of protocol comparison. Secondly, we propose the protocol behaviors enhancing resiliency. Our proposition consists in three elements: (i) introduce random behaviors (ii) limit route length (iii) introduce data replication. Random behaviors increase uncertainty for an adversary, making the protocols unpredictable. Data replication allows route diversification between the sources and the sink, thus improving the delivery success and fairness. Limitation of the route length is necessary to reduce the probability of a data packet to meet a malicious insider along the route. The quantitative metric enables to propose a new resiliency taxonomy of WSNs routing protocols. According to this taxonomy, the gradient based routing is the most resilient when it is combined with the proposed behaviors. Thirdly, several variants of the gradient-based routing (classical and randomized) under more complex and realistic adversary model (several combined attacks) are considered to extend our simulations. Several values of bias are introduced to the randomized variants and two data replication methods (uniform and adaptive) are considered. Without attacks, the most biased variants without replications are the most efficient. However, under moderate attacks, the replication uniform is the most adapted, while under intense attacks, the replication adaptive is the most suitable. Finally, a theoretical study of the resiliency is introduced. We present an analytical study of the biased random walk routing under attacks. The influence of bias is evaluated and two replication methods that previously evaluated by simulations are considered. After presenting the delivery success and the energy consumption of all scenarios, we evaluate them with our resiliency metric. This study permits to confirm the results obtained with simulations and it shows that the bias is essential to enhance the resiliency of random routing. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the resiliency. This concept is relatively new, especially in the network protocol engineering. Through this thesis, we wanted to give our view on this topic by focusing on the "beyond cryptography" algorithmic solutions of WSNs routing protocols.
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Ochirkhand Erdene-Ochir. Résilience et application aux protocoles de routage dans les réseaux de capteurs. Réseaux et télécommunications [cs.NI]. INSA de Lyon, 2013. Français. ⟨tel-00862710⟩

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