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L’existence d’une hiérarchie juridique favorisant la protection des convictions religieuses au sein des droits fondamentaux canadiens

Abstract : Since Dagenais c. Radio-Canada, rendered in 1994, the Supreme Court of Canada has never questioned the principle of “no legal hierarchy between the different Human Rights protected by the Canadian and Quebec charters. However, a careful review of Canadian jurisprudence on the protection of religious beliefs permits to detect a certain reluctance  if not a "discomfort"  of judicial institutions when they must identify clear boundaries beyond which the claims based on religious beliefs can not be constitutionnaly (or quasi-constitutionnaly) protected. This "judicial reluctance" being particular to provisions protecting religious convictions in Canada, it seemed possible to us that its impacts may be symptomatic of the implicit - but real - establishment a legal hierarchy between the various Human Rights protected by the Canadian and Quebec charters. Based on a theoretical framework inspired by the work of Rik Torfs, Professor in the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium, and through a study focused on the context of labor relations, we intend to demonstrate that the current state of Canadian and Quebec law on claims based on different religious beliefs and customs underlies the application of a hierarchical model (the "trust model") which assigns to the provisions protecting individual religious beliefs a place among the highest in the same hierarchy. In doing so, we hope to contribute significantly to the theory of law by achieving three main objectives : (1) To establish and implement a method permitting to identify a material hierarchy between two sets of fundamental rights, (2) To expose the close relationship that may exist between the different national models of management of religious pluralism and the concept of material hierarchy among human rights, and (3) To establish the existence of a material hierarchy between constitutional Human rights in Canada through the demonstration of hierarchical imbalance favoring the provisions protecting religious beliefs within the broader set of constitutionnal Human Rights in Canada
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Louis-Philippe Lampron. L’existence d’une hiérarchie juridique favorisant la protection des convictions religieuses au sein des droits fondamentaux canadiens. Droit. Université d'Avignon; Université Laval (Québec, Canada), 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010AVIG2029⟩. ⟨tel-00862072⟩

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