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Habilitation à diriger des recherches

Catalysis by oxides: conversion of light organic molecules

Abstract : In this thesis I present my most relevant research work I performed as a main author from 2002 until these days in the field of Catalysis by Oxides by grouping it on a thematic basis. Consequently, each chapter in Section A presents a research direction which corresponds to several papers. I tried to avoid technical details in the text and illustrate the main ideas using results and their discussion. It is worth noting that the results presented here were mainly obtained in the Laboratory of Chemical Technology and Catalysis from the University of Bucharest but also in laboratories abroad where I worked or we are collaborating with. Chapter I presents the most relevant of my results on the subject of the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of light alkanes following two main directions: i) enhancing the ODH selectivity of highly active catalysts and ii) developing new effective catalysts for ODH of light alkanes. Thus, we have shown that the ODH reaction of n-butane over highly active and selective TiP2O7 catalysts can be further improved by addition of CO2 in the feed and that phosphating ceria produces an increase in ODH selectivity mainly at the expense of total oxidation products. We studied new rare earth and transition metal-containing mixed-oxides obtained from layered double hydroxides (LDH) precursors as ODH catalysts. We have shown first that the use of the LDH-derived Mg-containing mixed oxides as catalysts in the ODH reaction favored the desorption of alkenes, and, consequently, improved the ODH selectivity. Among them the Co-containing system was the most active and selective for propane ODH. In this case we have shown that the well-dispersed cobalt species with tetrahedral coordination played a main role in the ODH reaction of propane into propene, the highest propene yields being obtained with the catalysts containing 7.5-9 at % Co with respect to cations. Chapter II is dedicated to the study of total oxidation of short-chain alkanes over different novel oxide-based catalysts with the aim of finding highly active catalysts for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) destruction, capable to replace the precious metal catalysts presently used. Thus, we have studied Pb and Ba titanates, LDH-derived transition metal-containing mixed oxides and Ni and Co ferrospinels. The most active and stable catalyst in the total oxidation of methane was the LDH-derived Cu-containing system. In this case we have shown that the active sites were the highly reducible copper species, their optimum dispersion being observed for the catalyst containing ~ 12 at % Cu with respect to cations. We have also shown for the first time that Co ferrite was highly active and stable in the total oxidation of propane as a VOC model. Chapter III is focussed on the study of oxidation catalysts by electrical conductivity measurements, a powerful technique for catalysts characterization that can provide information on the nature of surface oxidizing species, of structure defects and of the oxidic phase involved in the catalytic reaction which allows us to explain the catalytic behavior of the catalysts studied and to propose a reaction mechanism. Thus, we studied by electrical conductivity measurements ceria and phosphated ceria, catalysts for isobutane ODH, Pb and Ba titanates, catalysts for methane total oxidation, and vanadium antimonate and mixed vanadium and iron antimonate, catalysts for propane ammoxidation, the relationship existing between their redox and catalytic properties being evidenced and their catalytic behavior explained. Chapter IV is devoted to the study of catalytic processes involving the acid-base properties of the catalyst, such as conversion of ethanol into higher added value products over LDH-derived mixed oxides, cyanoethylation of methanol over transition-metal containing Mg-Al hydrotalcites and their corresponding mixed oxides and esterification of n-butanol with acetic acid over almina-supported molibdena and vanadia catalysts. Thus, we have shown that the Pd-containing LDH-derived mixed oxide was active for ethanol conversion into n-butanol while the Cu-based catalyst oriented the transformation towards n-butanol or 1,1-diethoxyethane depending on the reaction conditions and on the copper content. In the cyanoethylation reaction of methanol MgAlO system showed the best catalytic performances which diminished after introduction of the transition metal cations, the equilibrium between basic and acid sites being a key factor. Finally, we have shown that molybdena supported on γ-alumina acts as an efficient stable solid acid catalyst for the esterification of acetic acid with n-butanol, while vanadia supported on γ-alumina loose its activity because of the leaching of the active component. In Section B a plan for my research and academic career development is emphasized, different research topics in the field of Catalysis by Oxides that I intend to tackle in the future being described and justified based on a literature survey.
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Habilitation à diriger des recherches
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Submitted on : Wednesday, September 11, 2013 - 3:13:46 PM
Last modification on : Friday, October 23, 2020 - 4:33:25 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00860958, version 1

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Ioan-Cezar Marcu. Catalysis by oxides: conversion of light organic molecules. Catalysis. University of Bucharest, 2013. ⟨tel-00860958⟩

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