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Optique quantique avec des atomes artificiels semiconducteurs

Abstract : The thesis focuses on quantum optical effects in semiconducting artificial atoms. We first investigate theoretically a single emitter coupled to a one-dimensional waveguide. This system allows for light propagation while preserving sensitivity at the single-photon level, which has motivated proposals for quantum gates and single-photon transistors. A scheme to monitor stimulated emission at the single-photon level in this one-dimensional open space is proposed, using an excited emitter (e.g. a quantum dot) and a classical pump (laser). We show that light is emitted in the stimulating mode and that the atom performs classical Rabi oscillation. The fully quantum dynamics is also explored, where a single-photon packet interacts with an initially excited emitter. In contrast with the case of a classical pump, stimulation by a single photon is irreversible, i.e., no oscillation takes place. Stimulation is optimal for a packet three times shorter than the spontaneously emitted one. We show how this optimal irreversible stimulated emission can be applied to perform universal quantum cloning. The same device provides either optimal quantum cloning or maximally entangled photon pairs, depending only on the size of the incoming packet. In the second part of the thesis, we investigate the spontaneous emission spectrum of a semiconducting quantum dot weakly coupled to a microcavity. In particular, we address the problem of cavity feeding, where the quantum dot spontaneously emits photons at the frequency of an off-resonance cavity. The influence of phonons in the cavity feeding mechanism is analysed. An important distortion of the apparent cavity peak induced by the presence of phonons is demonstrated. These effects are topical and can be implemented in state-of-the-art semiconducting devices.
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Daniel Valente. Optique quantique avec des atomes artificiels semiconducteurs. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université de Grenoble, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENY046⟩. ⟨tel-00859710⟩

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