Mélange de magmas à HP-HT : contraintes expérimentales et application au magmatisme d'arc

Abstract : Three magmas (a synthetic haplotonalite, a basalt and a dacite from Santorini Volcano) have been deformed together at P=300 MPa in a Paterson type apparatus to constrain the mixing capacities between chemically contrasted magmas. Both dry and hydrous conditions were investigated at temperatures varying between 600 and 1200°C to vary magma crystallinity and visc osity contrasts. Mingling and mixing features were produced, which closely resemble those encountered in nature. Mingling features are xenocrysts, enclaves, and melt filaments. Diverse intermediate liquids and newly grown crystals characterize the mixing textures. Both mixing and mingling features were produced after crystal network breakage, at low viscosity contrasts (less than 0.3 log unit) and bulk viscosities lower than 107 – 108 Pa.s. The presence of water considerably affects the rheological properties of magmas and their mixing capacities: water-saturated magmas are able to mix at temperatures 200°C colder than their dry equivalent, and bubbles may influence the viscosity contrast leading to mixing at lower crystal fractions. Rheological conditions favourable to magma mixing between the resident magma in the reservoir and a hot replenishing one were determined according to the injected mafic magma fraction. The minimum fraction of mafic magma for mixing is 0.5 for typical arc magma chambers. The comparison with plutonic and volcanic rocks displaying mixing features shows that mixing may, however, occur at lower fractions. This suggests that reservoir dynamism may depend on the style and the frequency of the injection rate, and the amount of volatiles.
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Mickaël Laumonier. Mélange de magmas à HP-HT : contraintes expérimentales et application au magmatisme d'arc. Sciences de la Terre. Université d'Orléans, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013ORLE2007⟩. ⟨tel-00859628⟩

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