Construction de la réponse anticorps spécifique du paludisme chez le jeune enfant : étude combinée de l’hôte, du parasite et de leur environnement

Abstract : Four epidemiological studies showed that infants born from mothers with Plasmodium falciparum placental malaria at delivery present a higher susceptibility to plasmodial infections than others. In connection with this observation, we hypothesized that i) the infants’ P. falciparum specific antibody responses are different according to presence or absence of placental malaria at delivery in their mothers and ii) susceptibility could only be induced by antigens that bring the same polymorphisms as those found in infected mothers. Another project consisted to develop a new methodology to distinguish maternal and neonatal antibodies in order to measure accurately neo-synthesized antibodies in the first months of life. A birth cohort of 620 newborns was established in an area endemic for malaria. Infants were followed-up until 18 months of age and their antibody responses specific for 7 P. falciparum antigens were quarterly measured. The emergence of the immune maturation process was observed in 18-months-infants. The acquisition of specific antibody responses was not impacted by placental malaria. The new methodological approach leading to distinguish maternal and neonatal antibodies was validated. The genetic characterization of the parasite antigen polymorphisms in mothers at delivery and their infants during the follow-up, in link to environmental data, led partially to the validation of the immune tolerance hypothesis.
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Célia Dechavanne. Construction de la réponse anticorps spécifique du paludisme chez le jeune enfant : étude combinée de l’hôte, du parasite et de leur environnement. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA05P608⟩. ⟨tel-00856581⟩

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