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Modélisation des processus physico-chimiques nuageux : études de la réactivité de la matière organique

Abstract : Organic matter is ubiquitous in the atmosphere and plays a key role on both Earth radiative budget and public health particularly in high pollution level areas. Up to now around 10000 different VOCs (Volatil Organic Compounds) were identified. Their physical and chemical properties (solubility, volatility, reactivity …) are highly variables and not fully documented. Their distribution is perturbed by cloud droplet which represents a reactive media. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the physical and chemical processes contribution on VOCs distribution from numerical studies using the M2C2 (Model of Multiphase Cloud Chemistry) model. A detailed analysis of the microphysical rates and chemical rates linked to retention and burial effects show that for a moderate precipitating mixed-phase-cloud, the effect of the ice phase on gas phase composition is driven by riming of cloud droplets onto graupels, which leads to retention or not of soluble chemical species in the ice phase. Finally, the impact of crystal geometry on the efficiency of collection is studied together with its impact on the riming of cloud droplets on graupels and also on the retention of chemical species in ice phase. Numerical chemical outputs from M2C2 model were compared with experimental data that consisted of a time evolution of the concentrations of the target species. The chemical mechanism in the model describing the "oxidative engine" of the HxOy/iron chemical system was consistent with laboratory measurements. Thus, the degradation of the carboxylic acids evaluated was closely reproduced by the model. However, photolysis of the Fe(C2O4)+ complex needs to be considered in cloud chemistry models for polluted conditions (i.e., acidic pH) to correctly reproduce oxalic acid degradation. We also show that iron and formic acid lead to a stable complex whose photoreactivity has currently not been investigated. This thesis proposes the development of a new cloud chemical mechanism considering oxidative pathways of VOCs with 2-carbon atoms from experimental data and mechanism analogies. This new mechanism is tested using academic scenarios (urban, remote and marine). Results show that VOCs modify the sources and sinks of hydroxyl radical through the formation of new iron organic complexes in the case of urban scenario. In aqueous phase, alcohols concentrations are mainly drive by mass transfer and are not a significant source for aldehydes which are mostly produced in gaseous phase. Carboxylic acids are formed by aldehydes oxidation with a rate as a same order than their mass transfer.
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Yoann Long. Modélisation des processus physico-chimiques nuageux : études de la réactivité de la matière organique. Sciences de la Terre. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012CLF22276⟩. ⟨tel-00856269⟩

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