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Croissance, fructification et régénération naturelle des peuplements artificiels de Pin pignon (Pinus pinea L.) au nord de la Tunisie

Abstract : Natural regeneration of Pinus pinea stands in Tunisia is difficult to achieve. This process is threatened by multiple abiotic and biotic stresses and their interactions which are still not well known, whereas, the knowledge of these factors is essential for sylvicultural recommendations. Given the available literature, we hypothesized that stone pine seedling establishment is mainly controlled in order of importance by (i) light availability, (ii) amount of needle litter, and (iii) competition with understory vegetation. Furthermore, the study was completed by a characterization of stand structure in terms of growth and fructification. The seedling establishment behaviour of Pinus pinea was studied under field and controlled conditions for three forests of north Tunisia (Mekna III, Ouchtata II and Bechateur). Live seedling were counted in 90 plots (500m² each) distributed in these forests, and related to light availability, biomass of understory vegetation, and biomass of needle litter collected in eight square subplots (0.5m × 0.5m). An additional experiment was conducted under controlled conditions in pots in greenhouse with seeds of the three forests. Three light regimes were applied (3%, 16%, and 58%) of incident light, combined with three seedbed modalities: bare soil, soil covered with needle litter and soil watered with needle extract. The study showed that germination limitation was not directly related to light, but rather to temperature and humidity linked to the light regime. Seedling emergence was significantly suppressed by litter layer which imposed a mechanical barrier, whereas no chemotoxic effect was detected. The understory vegetation did not appear to play a significant role in Pinus pinea early seedling establishment in these Mediterranean climate conditions. During the subsequent development of seedlings, their light requirement increased and their interactions with understory woody vegetation moved from neutral relationship towards a competitive relationship. We use our results to propose an initial silvicultural approach to favour pine establishment. A management plan should first include scarification to reduce litter thickness and then heavy thinning to significantly increase light availability.
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  • HAL Id : tel-00856265, version 1

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Boutheina Adili. Croissance, fructification et régénération naturelle des peuplements artificiels de Pin pignon (Pinus pinea L.) au nord de la Tunisie. Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012CLF22320⟩. ⟨tel-00856265⟩

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