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Détection de cavités par deux méthodes géophysiques : radar de sol et mesures de résistivités électriques

Abstract : The detection of cavities in urban areas is important to prevent different causes of accidents related to possible collapse. The cavities are also interesting targets to archaeologists because forgotten cavities are potential sources of material revealing past uses. These cavities are of different sizes, of anthropogenic origin or not, in an outdoor setting or under buildings. Their size and the physical properties of the external environment in which they are located, allow the use of different geophysical methods. We focused on the use of two of them, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), to locate and determine cavities in the near subsurface (first 6 meters). GPR data are sensitive to variations in dielectric permittivity between the cavity and the external environment. We show by numerical modelling an effect on the amplitude of the reflected signal depending on the offset which could enable discrimination between an empty cavity and a cavity filled with water. We also study the amplitude of the reflected wave at normal incidence on the roof of a cavity of square cross section in terms of its depth and size. We show a logarithmic relationship between the cavity size and its depth at which the amplitude of the reflection is maximum for frequencies of typical exploration with GPR. Furthermore, we confirm that while GPR data determine accurately the size of an anomaly in homogeneous low conductive medium, ERT helps to determine areas with high resistivity at the location of cavities. We combine these two geophysical methods in two case studies, using the depth of interfaces detected on radargrams as a priori information to constrain the inversion of electrical resistivity models.
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Nerouz Boubaki. Détection de cavités par deux méthodes géophysiques : radar de sol et mesures de résistivités électriques. Sciences de la Terre. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI; Ǧāmiʻaẗ Ḥalab, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA112119⟩. ⟨tel-00855987⟩

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