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Etude des conséquences fonctionnelles des mutations du facteur eIF2B sur la maturation gliale

Abstract : EIF2B-related disorders are an autosomal recessive leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the ubiquitary eIF2B factor. This one is involved in the translation initiation step and its regulation, particularly upon cellular stresses, thanks to its guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity. A wide continuum clinical and mutational spectrum has been described for this pathology.The decrease of eIF2B GEF activity has been validated as an eIF2B-pathies specific biomarker in affected patients’ lymphoblasts with 100% specificity and 89% sensibility using a threshold at 77.5%.Functional molecular mechanisms involved in the physiopathology of eIF2B-related disorders have been searched by three approaches:- the first one focalized on the study of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response in lymphoblasts from eIF2B-mutated patients. The translational hyper-induction of specific genes involved in the unfolded protein response, identified in other cell types, was not observed in this study.- a global approach using a differential transcriptomic study of primary fibroblasts from eIF2B-mutated patients submitted or not to a cellular stress. The comparison with the transcriptomic profile of fibroblasts from healthy controls and patients presenting with other types of leukodystrophies not allowed us to identify a specific stress effect in eIF2B-mutated fibroblasts. On the other hand, it has been shown 70 genes specifically differentially deregulated in eIF2B-mutated fibroblasts as well as metabolic pathways implication, like splicing and mRNA stability, that are critical during the central nervous system development. We then validated that these genes, belonging the the hnRNP family, were also deregulated in brains from eIF2B-mutated patients and a splice abnormality of genes implicated in glial cells network has also been identified.- finally, in order to validate the hypothesis of an abnormal glial cell development, the embryonic stem cells (ESC) model has been used and a genetic default has been introduced in these cells to mimic eIF2B mutations. We identified an abnormal differentiation of these ESC into glial cells. Therefore, this model would provide a unique tool to search therapeutic agents that would improve glial cell differentiation, the major cells implicated in this pathology.
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Aurélia Huyghe. Etude des conséquences fonctionnelles des mutations du facteur eIF2B sur la maturation gliale. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011CLF1MM23⟩. ⟨tel-00855794⟩

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