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Evolution et facteurs pronostiques de la Neurofibromatose 1

Abstract : Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant condition which is a source of various multisystemic manifestations related either to the accumulation of neurofibromas or to specific developmental abnormalities. There are no obvious factors that predict disease progression. Thus, the aim of our project was to characterize the phenotype of NF1 patients with a severe prognosis. Patients were identified among adults with NF-1 followed up in the Réseau NF-France. The Réseau NF-France is a French medical network devoted to neurofibromatosis 1. It has elaborated recommendations for the management of the disease and recommended a coordinated follow-up in specialized multidisciplinary centres. About 2 500 patients were enrolled. We first evaluated the mortality in a large retrospective cohort of NF1 patients. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated as the ratio of observed over expected numbers of deaths. Between 1980 and 2006, 1895 NF1 patients were seen. The excess mortality occurred among patients aged 10 to 20 years (SMR=5.2; CI, 2.6-9.3; P<10-4) and 20 to 40 years (SMR, 4.1; 2.8-5.8; P<10-4). The main cause of death was the malignant tumors of the nerve sheath (MPNSTs) developing from preexisting internal neurofibromas. Then, a case-control study including 208 patients with NF1 allowed us to explain the increased risk of mortality among NF1 patients harboring subcutaneous neurofibromas (SC-NF) by the presence of internal neurofibromas (NF) at risk of MPNSTs systematically investigated with imaging (MRI) (OR=4.3, IC95% : 2.2 – 8.2). The association with SC-NF was stronger for patients with ten or more SC-NFs (OR=82, IC95% : 10.4 – 647.9) and for diffuse (OR=14.7, IC95% : 3.8 – 57.3), and ≥ 3 cm (OR=6.3, IC95% : 2.3 – 17.4) internal neurofibromas. Patients with SC-NF constituted 20 to 30% of the NF1 population. So, to characterize patients at risk of developping MPNSTs, we developped and validated a clinical score for predicting internal neurofibromas in adults. Four variables were independently associated with internal neurofibromas: at least two subcutaneous neurofibromas (OR=4.7, IC95% : 2.1 – 10.5), age ≤30 years (OR=3.1, IC95% : 1.4 – 6.8), absence of cutaneous neurofibromas (OR=2.6, IC95% : 0.9 – 7.5), and fewer than six café-au-lait spots (OR=2, IC95% : 0.9 – 4.6). The NF1Score was computed as 10 . [age ≤30 years] + 10 • [absence of cutaneous neurofibromas] + 15 • [≥2 subcutaneous neurofibromas] + 5 • [<6 café-au-lait spots]). Calibration was excellent (Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic=4.53; degrees of freedom=7; P>0.5) and discrimination was good (AUC-ROC= 0.75; 95%CI, 0.7-0.8). Finally clinical expressivity is variable and manifestations of NF1 change at different times in an individual’s life. Consequently, a specific study was needed in pediatric patients. We identified easily recognizable clinical characteristics associated with internal neurofibromas in children with NF1. By multivariate analysis, age (OR=1.1, IC95% : 1.0 – 1.2), xanthogranulomas (OR=4.5, IC95% : 0.9 – 21.7), and presence of both subcutaneous and plexiform neurofibromas (OR=5.0, IC95% : 1.8 – 13.6) were independently associated with internal neurofibromas. Moreover internal neurofibromas increased during adolescence. Excess risk of developing internal neurofibromas seems to occur between the adolescence and the age of to 30 in NF1 patients. These clinical features in adults and children would define a new population at risk for complications that may need closer clinical and imaging follow-up
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Émilie Sbidian. Evolution et facteurs pronostiques de la Neurofibromatose 1. Santé publique et épidémiologie. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA11T064⟩. ⟨tel-00853858⟩



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