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Theses

Diversité et adaptation aux fongicides des populations de Botrytis cinerea, agent de la pourriture grise

Abstract : Natural selection is the most powerful force driving population adaptation to their environment, favoring the variants with the best fitness. Fungi generally exhibit biological traits (diversity of reproduction modes, large population sizes, and intense dispersion) that favor their adaptation to changing environments. Therefore, disentangling the mechanisms that explain their evolution under natural and anthropic constraints constitute a major challenge for plant protection, especially in the actual context of agriculture sustainability. In this thesis, we described Botrytis cinerea population structure and diversity, using neutral and selected markers and a hierarchical sampling, and proposed mechanisms that may explain these observations. We then analyzed the adaptive answer of this species towards fungicide applications. First, we showed that grey mold populations were caused by a complex of two cryptic species, living sympatrically on the same hosts. Second, B. cinerea populations are divided into five demes, according to the cropping system (directional selection), the host-plant (ecological adaptation), and to a lesser extent, by geography. On grapevine, we identified a specific populations exhibiting temporal isolation, as an evidence of extreme exploration of the viticultural conditions. Moreover, fungicide applications select resistance towards all unisite modes of action, with few exceptions, but at varying proportions according to vineyards and fungicide use. More specifically, resistance to succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs) is caused by at least seven mutations altering the target genes of these fungicides, and determines a large variety of phenotypes in the field. At last, we showed that fungicides did not shape population structure but that they could decrease allele richness in treated areas and lead to migration-selection equilibrium, detectable in some situation and for loci under contemporary selective pressures as clines. Modeling the evolution of resistance during winter allowed estimating fitness cost of four loci involved in contemporary fungicide resistance, such as multidrug resistance. As a conclusion, this thesis helped to understand how B. cinerea populations evolve and to detect and quantify selective mechanisms at work in natura. This information will be useful to deign sustainable and locally-adapted anti-resistance strategies.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, August 21, 2013 - 12:52:14 PM
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Anne-Sophie Walker. Diversité et adaptation aux fongicides des populations de Botrytis cinerea, agent de la pourriture grise. Sciences agricoles. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA112067⟩. ⟨tel-00852740⟩

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