L. Baldo, H. Dunning, J. Jolley, and K. , Multilocus Sequence Typing System for the Endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.72, issue.11, pp.7098-7110, 2006.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.00731-06

C. Bandi, J. Anderson, C. Genchi, and M. Blazter, Phylogeny of Wolbachia in filarial nematodes, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, pp.2401-2413, 1998.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1998.0591

S. Bordenstein, O. Hara, F. Werren, and J. , Wolbachia-induced incompatibility precedes other hybrid incompatibilities in Nasonia, Nature, vol.409, issue.6821, pp.707-710, 2001.
DOI : 10.1038/35055543

J. Brownlie and K. Johnson, Symbiont-mediated protection in insect hosts, Trends in Microbiology, vol.17, issue.8, pp.348-354, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tim.2009.05.005

M. Casiraghi, T. Anderson, C. Bandi, C. Bazzocchi, and C. Genchi, A phylogenetic analysis of filarial nematodes: comparison with the phylogeny of Wolbachia endosymbionts, Parasitology, vol.122, issue.1, pp.93-103, 2001.
DOI : 10.1017/S0031182000007149

S. Charlat, G. Hurst, and H. Mercot, Evolutionary consequences of Wolbachia infections, Trends in Genetics, vol.19, issue.4, pp.217-223, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0168-9525(03)00024-6

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00427501

S. Charlat, M. Reuter, and E. Dyson, Male-Killing Bacteria Trigger a Cycle of Increasing Male Fatigue and Female Promiscuity, Current Biology, vol.17, issue.3, pp.273-277, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cub.2006.11.068

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00434578

F. Dedeine, M. Bouletreau, and F. Vavre, Wolbachia requirement for oogenesis: occurrence within the genus Asobara (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) and evidence for intraspecific variation in A. tabida, Heredity, vol.261, issue.5, pp.394-400, 2005.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-294x.1998.00467.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00427734

O. Duron, D. Bouchon, and S. Boutin, The diversity of reproductive parasites among arthropods: Wolbachia do not walk alone, BMC Biology, vol.6, issue.1, p.27, 2008.
DOI : 10.1186/1741-7007-6-27

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00293355

K. Fenn and M. Blaxter, Are filarial nematode Wolbachia obligate mutualist symbionts?, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.19, issue.4, pp.163-166, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tree.2004.01.002

K. Fenn, C. Conlon, and M. Jones, Phylogenetic Relationships of the Wolbachia of Nematodes and Arthropods, PLoS Pathogens, vol.19, issue.10, p.94, 2006.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.ppat.0020094.sd001

O. Folmer, M. Black, W. Hoeh, R. Lutz, and R. Vrijenhoek, DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates, Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, vol.3, pp.294-299, 1994.

A. Haegeman, B. Vanholme, and J. Jacob, An endosymbiotic bacterium in a plant-parasitic nematode: Member of a new Wolbachia supergroup, International Journal for Parasitology, vol.39, issue.9, pp.1045-1054, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijpara.2009.01.006

K. Halanych, R. Feldman, and R. Vrijenhoek, Is Closely Related to Vestimentiferans, not to Frenulate Pogonophorans (Siboglinidae, Annelida), The Biological Bulletin, vol.201, issue.1, pp.65-75, 2001.
DOI : 10.2307/1543527

K. Hilgenboecker, P. Hammerstein, A. Telschow, and J. Werren, How many species are infected with Wolbachia? ?????? a statistical analysis of current data, FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol.281, issue.2, pp.215-220, 2008.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2008.01110.x

M. Hiroki, Y. Kato, T. Kamito, and K. Miura, Feminization of genetic males by a symbiotic bacterium in a butterfly, Eurema hecabe (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), Naturwissenschaften, vol.89, issue.4, pp.167-170, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/s00114-002-0303-5

T. Hosokawa, R. Koga, Y. Kikuchi, X. Meng, and T. Fukatsu, Wolbachia as a bacteriocyte-associated nutritional mutualist, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.107, issue.2, pp.769-774, 2010.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0911476107

F. Jiggins, G. Hurst, and M. Majerus, Sex-ratio-distorting Wolbachia causes sex-role reversal in its butterfly host, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.267, issue.1438, pp.69-73, 2000.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.2000.0968

F. Jiggins, V. D. Schulenburg, J. Hurst, G. Majerus, and M. , Recombination confounds interpretations of Wolbachia evolution, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.268, issue.1474, pp.1423-1427, 2001.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.2001.1656

Z. Kambris, P. Cook, H. Phuc, and S. Sinkins, Immune Activation by Life-Shortening Wolbachia and Reduced Filarial Competence in Mosquitoes, Science, vol.326, issue.5949, pp.134-136, 2009.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1177531

N. Kremer, D. Charif, and H. Henri, A new case of Wolbachia dependence in the genus Asobara: evidence for parthenogenesis induction in Asobara japonica, Heredity, vol.8, issue.3, pp.248-256, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01923619

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00428410

N. Lo and T. Evans, Phylogenetic diversity of the intracellular symbiont Wolbachia in termites, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol.44, issue.1, pp.461-466, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ympev.2006.10.028

L. Medlin, H. Elwood, S. Stickel, and M. Sogin, The characterization of enzymatically amplified eukaryotic 16S-like rRNA-coding regions, Gene, vol.71, issue.2, pp.491-499, 1988.
DOI : 10.1016/0378-1119(88)90066-2

L. Moreira, I. Iturbe-ormaetxe, and J. Jeffery, A Wolbachia Symbiont in Aedes aegypti Limits Infection with Dengue, Chikungunya, and Plasmodium, Cell, vol.139, issue.7, pp.1268-1278, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2009.11.042

O. Neill, S. Giordano, R. Colbert, A. Karr, T. Robertson et al., 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial endosymbionts associated with cytoplasmic incompatibility in insects, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, pp.2699-2702, 1992.

D. Poinsot, S. Charlat, and H. Merçot, -induced cytoplasmic incompatibility: Confronting the models with the facts, BioEssays, vol.48, issue.3, pp.259-265, 2003.
DOI : 10.1002/bies.10234

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00259200

V. Ros, V. Fleming, E. Feil, and J. Breeuwer, How Diverse Is the Genus Wolbachia? Multiple-Gene Sequencing Reveals a Putatively New Wolbachia Supergroup Recovered from Spider Mites (Acari: Tetranychidae), Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.75, issue.4, pp.1036-1043, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.01109-08

J. Sakamoto, J. Feinstein, and J. Rasgon, Wolbachia Infections in the Cimicidae: Museum Specimens as an Untapped Resource for Endosymbiont Surveys, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.72, issue.5, pp.3161-3167, 2006.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.72.5.3161-3167.2006

R. Stouthamer, J. Breeuwer, and G. Hurst, : Microbial Manipulator of Arthropod Reproduction, Annual Review of Microbiology, vol.53, issue.1, pp.71-102, 1999.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.micro.53.1.71

M. Taylor and A. Hoerauf, Wolbachia Bacteria of Filarial Nematodes, Parasitology Today, vol.15, issue.11, pp.437-442, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0169-4758(99)01533-1

T. Vandekerckhove, S. Watteyne, and W. Bonne, Evolutionary trends in feminization and intersexuality in woodlice (Crustacea, Isopoda) infected with Wolbachia pipientis (alpha-Proteobacteria), Belgian Journal of Zoology, vol.133, pp.61-69, 2003.

J. Werren and D. Windsor, Wolbachia infection frequencies in insects: evidence of a global equilibrium?, Proceedings of Biological Sciences, pp.1277-1285, 2000.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.2000.1139

J. Werren, L. Baldo, and M. Clark, Wolbachia: master manipulators of invertebrate biology, Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol.12, issue.10, pp.741-751, 2008.
DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.64515-0

W. Zhou, F. Rousset, O. Neil, and S. , Phylogeny and PCR-based classification of Wolbachia strains using wsp gene sequences, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.265, issue.1395, pp.509-515, 1998.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1998.0324

S. L. Oneill, A. A. Hoffman, and J. H. Werren, Influencial Passengers Inherited Microorganisms and Arthropo Reproduction, 1997.

C. Dale and N. A. Moran, Molecular Interactions between Bacterial Symbionts and Their Hosts, Cell, vol.126, issue.3, pp.453-465, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2006.07.014

J. Ferrari and F. Vavre, Bacterial symbionts in insects or the story of communities affecting communities, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.326, issue.5949, pp.1389-1400, 2011.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1177531

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00784710

C. Bandi, A. M. Dunn, G. D. Hurst, and T. Rigaud, Inherited microorganisms, sex-specific virulence and reproductive parasitism, Trends in Parasitology, vol.17, issue.2, pp.88-94, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S1471-4922(00)01812-2

J. H. Yen and . A. Barr, The etiological agent of cytoplasmic incompatibility in Culex pipiens, Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol.22, issue.2, pp.242-250, 1973.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-2011(73)90141-9

F. Rousset, D. Bouchon, B. Pintureau, P. Juchault, and M. Solignac, Wolbachia Endosymbionts Responsible for Various Alterations of Sexuality in Arthropods, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.250, issue.1328, pp.91-98, 1328.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1992.0135

R. Stouthamer, J. A. Breeuwer, R. F. Luck, and J. H. Werren, Molecular identification of microorganisms associated with parthenogenesis, Nature, vol.361, issue.6407, pp.66-68, 1993.
DOI : 10.1038/361066a0

R. L. Gherna, J. H. Werren, W. Weisburg, R. Cote, C. R. Woese et al., NOTES: Arsenophonus nasoniae gen. nov., sp. nov., the Causative Agent of the Son-Killer Trait in the Parasitic Wasp Nasonia vitripennis, International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, vol.41, issue.4, pp.563-565, 1991.
DOI : 10.1099/00207713-41-4-563

O. Duron, . Bouchon, S. Boutin, L. Bellamy, L. Zhou et al., The diversity of reproductive parasites among arthropods: Wolbachia do not walk alone, BMC Biology, vol.6, issue.1, pp.6-28, 2008.
DOI : 10.1186/1741-7007-6-27

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00293355

G. D. Hurst, F. M. Jiggins, J. H. Schulenburg, D. Bertrand, S. A. West et al., Male-killing Wolbachia in two species of insect, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.266, issue.1420, pp.266-735, 1420.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1999.0698

D. L. Williamson, B. Sakaguchi, K. J. Hackett, R. F. Whitcomb, J. G. Tully et al., Spiroplasma poulsonii sp. nov., a new species associated with male-lethality in Drosophila willistoni, a neotropical species of fruit fly, International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, vol.49, issue.2, pp.611-618, 1999.
DOI : 10.1099/00207713-49-2-611

M. C. Tinsley and M. E. Majerus, A new male-killing parasitism: Spiroplasma bacteria infect the ladybird beetle Anisosticta novemdecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Parasitology, vol.160, issue.06, pp.132-757, 2006.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.67.1.270-277.2001

M. S. Hunter, S. J. Perlman, and S. E. Kelly, A bacterial symbiont in the Bacteroidetes induces cytoplasmic incompatibility in the parasitoid wasp Encarsia pergandiella, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.270, issue.1529, pp.2185-2190, 1529.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.2003.2475

E. Zchori-fein and S. J. Perlman, Distribution of the bacterial symbiont Cardinium in arthropods, Molecular Ecology, vol.98, issue.7, pp.2009-2016, 2004.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02203.x

M. Bern and D. Goldberg, Automatic selection of representative proteins for bacterial phylogeny, BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol.5, issue.1, p.34, 2005.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2148-5-34

K. Hilgenboecker, P. Hammerstein, P. Tand-lschow, A. Werren, and J. , How many species are infected with Wolbachia? ?????? a statistical analysis of current data, FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol.281, issue.2, pp.215-220, 2008.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2008.01110.x

S. Charlat, E. Hornett, J. Fullard, N. Davies, G. Roderick et al., Extraordinary Flux in Sex Ratio, Science, vol.317, issue.5835, p.214, 2007.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1143369

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00434683

F. M. Jiggins, G. D. Hurst, and M. E. Majerus, High-prevalence male-killing Wolbachia in the butterfly Acraea encedana, Influential Passengers: Inherited Microorgan isms and Arthropod Reproduction, pp.495-501, 1997.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1998.0324

P. Kitrayapong, V. Baimai, O. Neill, and S. L. , Field prevalence of Wolbachia in the mosquito vector Aedes albopictus. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, pp.108-111, 2002.

Q. Cheng, T. D. Ruel, W. Zhou, S. K. Moloo, P. Majiwa et al., Tissue distribution and prevalence of Wolbachia infections in tsetse flies, Glossina spp. Medical and veterinary entomology, pp.44-50, 2000.

N. Kondo, N. Ijichi, M. Shimada, and T. Fukatsu, Prevailing triple infection with Wolbachia in Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Molecular Ecology, vol.51, issue.2
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1998.0324

M. Reuter and L. Keller, High Levels of Multiple Wolbachia Infection and Recombination in the Ant Formica exsecta, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.20, issue.5, pp.1428-1433, 2003.
DOI : 10.1093/molbev/msg082

R. Stouthamer, Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis In: Influential Passengers: Inherited Microorganisms and Arthropod Reproduction, 1997.

F. Dedeine, M. Ahrens, L. Calcaterra, and D. D. Shoemaker, Social parasitism in fire ants (Solenopsis spp.): a potential mechanism for interspecies transfer of Wolbachia, Molecular Ecology, vol.261, issue.5, pp.1543-1548, 2005.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1998.0324

C. Bandi, T. J. Anderson, C. Genchi, and M. L. Blaxter, Phylogeny of Wolbachia in filarial nematodes, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.265, issue.1413, pp.2407-2413, 1998.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1998.0591

S. Charlat, G. D. Hurst, and H. Mercot, Evolutionary consequences of Wolbachia infections, Trends in Genetics, vol.19, issue.4, pp.219-223, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0168-9525(03)00024-6

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00427501

S. R. Bordenstein, O. Hara, F. P. Werren, and J. H. , Wolbachia-induced incompatibility precedes other hybrid incompatibilities in Nasonia, Nature, vol.409, issue.6821, pp.707-710, 2001.
DOI : 10.1038/35055543

J. Hotopp, M. Clark, D. Oliveira, J. Foster, P. Fischer et al., Widespread Lateral Gene Transfer from Intracellular Bacteria to Multicellular Eukaryotes, Science, vol.317, issue.5845, p.1753, 2007.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1142490

S. L. Dobson, K. Bourtzis, H. R. Braig, B. F. Jones, W. Zhou et al., Wolbachia infections are distributed throughout insect somatic and germ line tissues, Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol.29, issue.2, pp.153-160, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0965-1748(98)00119-2

R. Stouthamer, J. A. Breeuwer, and G. D. Hurst, : Microbial Manipulator of Arthropod Reproduction, Annual Review of Microbiology, vol.53, issue.1, pp.71-102, 1999.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.micro.53.1.71

E. Ferri, O. Bain, M. Barbuto, C. Martin, N. Lo et al., New Insights into the Evolution of Wolbachia Infections in Filarial Nematodes Inferred from a Large Range of Screened Species, PLoS ONE, vol.16, issue.6, p.20843, 2011.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0020843.s004

J. H. Werren, W. Zhang, and L. Guo, Evolution and Phylogeny of Wolbachia: Reproductive Parasites of Arthropods, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.261, issue.1360, pp.55-63, 1995.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1995.0117

M. Casiraghi, S. R. Bordenstein, L. Baldo, N. Lo, T. Beninati et al., Phylogeny of Wolbachia pipientis based on gltA, groEL and ftsZ gene sequences: clustering of arthropod and nematode symbionts in the F supergroup, and evidence for further diversity in the Wolbachia tree, Microbiology, vol.151, issue.12, pp.151-4015, 2005.
DOI : 10.1099/mic.0.28313-0

N. Lo, C. Paraskevopoulos, K. Bourtzis, S. L. Oneill, J. H. Werren et al., Taxonomic status of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia pipientis, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY, vol.57, issue.3, pp.654-657, 2007.
DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.64515-0

V. I. Ros, V. M. Fleming, E. J. Feil, and J. A. Breeuwer, How Diverse Is the Genus Wolbachia? Multiple-Gene Sequencing Reveals a Putatively New Wolbachia Supergroup Recovered from Spider Mites (Acari: Tetranychidae), Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.75, issue.4, pp.1036-1043, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.01109-08

S. R. Bordenstein, C. Paraskevopoulos, D. Hotopp, J. C. Sapountzis, P. Lo et al., Parasitism and Mutualism in Wolbachia: What the Phylogenomic Trees Can and Cannot Say, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.26, issue.1, pp.231-241, 2009.
DOI : 10.1093/molbev/msn243

A. Haegeman, B. Vanholme, J. Jacob, T. T. Vandekerckhove, M. Claeys et al., An endosymbiotic bacterium in a plant-parasitic nematode: Member of a new Wolbachia supergroup, International Journal for Parasitology, vol.39, issue.9, pp.39-1045, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijpara.2009.01.006

J. Foster, B. Slatko, C. Bandi, and S. Kumar, Recombination in Wolbachia Endosymbionts of Filarial Nematodes?, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.77, issue.5, pp.1921-1922, 2011.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.02380-10

F. M. Jiggins, G. D. Hurst, and Z. Yang, Host-Symbiont Conflicts: Positive Selection on an Outer Membrane Protein of Parasitic but not Mutualistic Rickettsiaceae, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.19, issue.8, pp.1341-1349, 2002.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a004195

M. Casiraghi, J. H. Werren, C. Bazzocchi, A. Biserni, and C. Bandi, dnaA gene sequences from Wolbachia pipientis support subdivision into supergroups and provide no evidence for recombination in the lineages infecting nematodes. Parasitologia, pp.13-18, 2003.

S. R. Bordenstein, C. Paraskevopoulos, D. Hotopp, J. C. Sapountzis, P. Lo et al., Parasitism and Mutualism in Wolbachia: What the Phylogenomic Trees Can and Cannot Say, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.26, issue.1, pp.231-241, 2009.
DOI : 10.1093/molbev/msn243

M. Casiraghi, T. J. Anderson, C. Bandi, C. Bazzocchi, and C. Genchi, A phylogenetic analysis of filarial nematodes: comparison with the phylogeny of Wolbachia endosymbionts, Parasitology, vol.122, issue.1, pp.93-103, 2001.
DOI : 10.1017/S0031182000007149

L. Baldo, D. Hotopp, J. C. Jolley, K. A. Bordenstein, S. R. Biber et al., Multilocus Sequence Typing System for the Endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.72, issue.11, pp.727098-7110, 2006.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.00731-06

L. Baldo, S. Bordenstein, J. J. Wernegreen, and J. H. Werren, Widespread Recombination Throughout Wolbachia Genomes, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.23, issue.2, pp.437-449, 2006.
DOI : 10.1093/molbev/msj049

F. M. Jiggins, The Rate of Recombination in Wolbachia Bacteria, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.19, issue.9, pp.1640-1643, 2002.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a004228

J. H. Werren and D. M. Windsor, Wolbachia infection frequencies in insects: evidence of a global equilibrium?, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.267, issue.1450, pp.1277-1285, 2000.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.2000.1139

F. Vavre, F. Dedeine, M. Quillon, P. Fouillet, . Fleury-"-f et al., WITHIN-SPECIES DIVERSITY OF WOLBACHIA-INDUCED CYTOPLASMIC INCOMPATIBILITY IN HAPLODIPLOID INSECTS, Evolution, vol.16, issue.8, pp.1710-1714, 2001.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1998.0324

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00427198

S. Charlat, J. Engelstadter, E. A. Dyson, E. A. Hornett, A. Duplouy et al., Competing Selfish Genetic Elements in the Butterfly Hypolimnas bolina, Current Biology, vol.16, issue.24, pp.16-2453, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cub.2006.10.062

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00427917

F. Vavre, F. Fleury, . Lepetit, . Fouillet, and M. Bouletreau, Phylogenetic evidence for horizontal transmission of Wolbachia in host- parasitoid associations, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.16, issue.12, pp.1711-1723, 1999.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026084

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00428457

R. Cordaux, A. Michel-salzat, and D. Bouchon, Wolbachia infection in crustaceans: novel hosts and potential routes for horizontal transmission, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol.265, issue.2, pp.237-243, 2001.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1420-9101.2001.00279.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00123774

S. Sintupachee, J. Milne, S. Poonchaisri, V. Baimai, and P. Kittayapong, Closely Related Wolbachia Strains within the Pumpkin Arthropod Community and the Potential for Horizontal Transmission via the Plant, Microbial Ecology, vol.265, issue.3, pp.294-301, 1007.
DOI : 10.1007/s00248-006-9036-x

J. K. Stahlhult, C. A. Desjardins, M. E. Clark, L. Baldo, R. Jacob et al., The mushroom habitat as an ecological arena for global exchange of Wolbachia Distribution of wolbachia among Neotropical arthropods, Proc. R. Soc. B, pp.1940-1952, 1995.

E. Baudry, J. Bartos, K. Emerson, T. Whitworth, and J. H. Werren, Wolbachia and genetic variability in the birdnest blowfly Protocalliphora sialia, Molecular Ecology, vol.261, issue.7, pp.1843-1854, 2003.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1998.0324

W. Arthofer, . Riegler, D. Schneider, M. Krammer, W. J. Miller et al., Hidden Wolbachia diversity in field populations of the European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera, Tephritidae), Mol. Ecol, issue.18, pp.183816-3830, 2009.

B. D. Heath, R. D. Butcher, W. G. Whitfield, and S. F. Hubbard, Horizontal transfer of Wolbachia between phylogenetically distant insect species by a naturally occurring mechanism, Current Biology, vol.9, issue.6, pp.313-316, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0960-9822(99)80139-0

M. E. Huigens, R. F. Luck, R. H. Klaassen, M. J. Timmermans, and . Stones-havas, Infectious parthenogenesis, Nature, vol.405, issue.6783, pp.178-179, 2000.
DOI : 10.1038/35012066

P. Kittayapong, W. Jamnongluk, A. Thipaksorn, J. R. Milne, and C. Sindhusake, Wolbachia infection complexity among insects in the tropical rice-field community, Molecular Ecology, vol.261, issue.4, pp.1049-1060, 2003.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1998.0324

T. Rigaud and P. Juchault, Success and failure of horizontal transfers of feminizing Wolbachia endosymbionts in woodlice, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol.8, issue.2, pp.249-255, 1995.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1420-9101.1995.8020249.x

L. Baldo, N. A. Ayoub, C. Y. Hayashi, J. A. Russel, J. K. Stahult et al., Insight into the routes of Wolbachia invasion: high levels of horizontal transfer in the spider genus Agelenopsis revealed by Wolbachia strain and mitochondrial DNA diversity, Molecular Ecology, vol.265, issue.2, pp.557-569, 2008.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03608.x

P. Bouchon, D. Rigaud, T. , and J. , Evidence for widespread Wolbachia infection in isopod crustaceans: molecular identification and host feminization, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.265, issue.1401, pp.1081-1090, 1998.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1998.0402

M. Schilthuizen and R. Stouthamer, Horizontal transmission of parthenogenesis-inducing microbes in Trichogramma wasps, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.264, issue.1380, pp.361-366, 1997.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1997.0052

C. David and . Chan, Mitochondria: Dynamic Organelles in Disease, Aging, and Development, Cell, vol.125, issue.7, pp.1241-1252, 2006.

N. T. Perna, T. D. Kocher, and D. Mitochondrial, Mitochondrial DNA: Molecular fossils in the nucleus, Current Biology, vol.6, issue.2, pp.128-129, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/S0960-9822(02)00441-4

K. L. Adams and J. Palmer, Evolution of mitochondrial gene content: gene loss and transfer to the nucleus, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol.29, issue.3, pp.380-395, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00194-5

J. W. Ballard, R. , and D. M. , The Population Biology of Mitochondrial DNA and Its Phylogenetic Implications, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, vol.36, issue.1, pp.621-642, 2005.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.36.091704.175513

W. M. Brown, M. George, and A. C. Wilson, Rapid evolution of animal mitochondrial DNA., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.76, issue.4, pp.1967-1971, 1979.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.76.4.1967

E. Moriyama and J. Powell, Synonymous substitution rates in Drosophila: Mitochondrial versus nuclear genes, Journal of Molecular Evolution, vol.143, issue.4
DOI : 10.1007/PL00006243

N. Galtier, B. Nabholz, S. Glamin, and G. D. Hurst, Mitochondrial DNA as a marker of molecular diversity: a reappraisal, Molecular Ecology, vol.57, issue.22, pp.4541-4550, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04380.x

G. D. Hurst and F. M. Jiggins, Problems with mitochondrial DNA as a marker in population, phylogeographic and phylogenetic studies: the effects of inherited symbionts, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.261, issue.1360, pp.2721525-1534, 1572.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1995.0117

P. D. Hebert, A. Cywinska, S. L. Ball, and J. R. Dewaard, Biological identifications through DNA barcodes, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.270, issue.1512, pp.313-321, 1512.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.2002.2218

D. N. Hebert, M. Y. And-stoeckle, T. S. And-zemlak, and C. M. And-francis, Identification of Birds through DNA Barcodes, PLoS Biology, vol.104, issue.10, p.312, 2004.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020312.sg001

W. J. Kress and D. L. Erickson, DNA barcodes: Genes, genomics, and bioinformatics, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.105, issue.8, pp.2761-2762, 2008.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0800476105

L. Frezal and R. Leblois, Four years of DNA barcoding: Current advances and prospects, Infection, Genetics and Evolution, vol.8, issue.5, pp.727-736, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.meegid.2008.05.005

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/mnhn-00392451

R. J. Whittaker and J. M. Fernandez-palaciso, Island Biogeography: Ecology, Evolution and Conservation, 2007.

V. Courtillot, . A. Davaille, J. Besse, and J. Stock, Three distinct types of hotspots in the Earth???s mantle, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.205, issue.3-4, pp.3-4295, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0012-821X(02)01048-8

B. C. Emerson, Evolution on oceanic islands: molecular phylogenetic approaches to understanding pattern and process, Molecular Ecology, vol.219, issue.6, pp.951-966, 2002.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.050351197

V. E. Neall and S. A. Trewick, The age and origin of the Pacific islands: a geological overview, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.54, issue.6139, pp.3293-3308, 1508.
DOI : 10.1038/329534a0

R. G. Gillespie, E. M. Claridge, and S. L. Goodacre, Biogeography of the fauna of French Polynesia: diversification within and between a series of hot spot archipelagos, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.28, issue.8, pp.3335-3346, 2008.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.050351197

M. Chinery, Field Guide Inesects of Britain and Northern Europe, 1993.

A. Duplouy, C. Vermenot, N. Davies, G. Roderick, G. Hurst et al., DNA cross-specimen contamination following mass collection and ethanol storage, Molecular Ecology Resources, vol.265, issue.1, pp.46-50, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2008.02421.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00428419

M. Dierkens and S. Charlat, Contribuition ? la connaissance des araignÈes de Óles de la SociÈtÈ (PolynÈsie FranÁaise), Rev. Arachnol, vol.17, pp.63-81, 2009.

C. Moritz and . Cicero, DNA Barcoding: Promise and Pitfalls, PLoS Biology, vol.103, issue.10, p.354, 2004.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020354

URL : http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0020354

J. Pons and A. P. Vogler, Complex Pattern of Coalescence and Fast Evolution of a Mitochondrial rRNA Pseudogene in a Recent Radiation of Tiger Beetles, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.22, issue.4, pp.991-1000, 2005.
DOI : 10.1093/molbev/msi085

O. Folmer, M. Black, W. Hoeh, R. Lutz, and R. Vrijenhoek, DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates, Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol, vol.3, issue.5, pp.294-299, 1994.

L. Baldo, N. Lo, . Werren, and H. John, Mosaic Nature of the Wolbachia Surface Protein, Journal of Bacteriology, vol.187, issue.15, pp.5406-5418, 2005.
DOI : 10.1128/JB.187.15.5406-5418.2005

M. Gouy, S. Guindon, and O. Gascuel, SeaView Version 4: A Multiplatform Graphical User Interface for Sequence Alignment and Phylogenetic Tree Building, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.27, issue.2, pp.221-224, 2010.
DOI : 10.1093/molbev/msp259

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/lirmm-00705187

J. Feselstein, Inferring Phylogenies, 2004.

S. Guindon and O. Gascuel, A Simple, Fast, and Accurate Algorithm to Estimate Large Phylogenies by Maximum Likelihood, Systematic Biology, vol.52, issue.5, pp.696-704, 2003.
DOI : 10.1080/10635150390235520

R. Gillespie, R. , and G. K. , : Colonization, Speciation, and Conservation, Annual Review of Entomology, vol.47, issue.1, pp.595-632, 2002.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.ento.47.091201.145244

D. A. Craig, Geomorphology, Development of Running Water Habitats, and Evolution of Black Flies on Polynesian Islands, BioScience, vol.53, issue.11, pp.1079-1093, 2003.
DOI : 10.1641/0006-3568(2003)053[1079:GDORWH]2.0.CO;2

R. G. Gillespie, Biogeography of spiders on remote oceanic islands of the Pacific: archipelagoes as stepping stones?, Journal of Biogeography, vol.9, issue.5-6, pp.655-662, 2002.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-294x.1998.00309.x

H. Cowie and B. S. Holland, Dispersal is fundamental to biogeography and the evolution of biodiversity on oceanic islands, Journal of Biogeography, vol.24, issue.2, pp.193-198, 2006.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.050351197

J. E. Garb and R. G. Gillespie, Island hopping across the central Pacific: mitochondrial DNA detects sequential colonization of the Austral Islands by crab spiders (Araneae: Thomisidae), Journal of Biogeography, vol.11, issue.2, pp.201-220, 2006.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2699.2001.00605.x

S. Wright, Y. , C. G. Dawson, J. W. Whittaker, D. Gardner et al., Riding the ice age El Nino? Pacific biogeography and evolution of Metrosideros subg. Metrosideros (Myrtaceae) inferred from nuclear ribosomal DNA, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.97, issue.8, pp.4118-4123, 2000.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.050351197

C. Gemill, A. , G. J. Wagner, W. L. Zimmer, and E. A. , Evolution of Insular Pacific Pittosporum (Pittosporaceae): Origin of the Hawaiian Radiation, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol.22, issue.1, pp.31-42, 2001.
DOI : 10.1006/mpev.2001.1019

H. L. Carson, Tracing ancestry with chromosomal sequences, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.2, issue.7, pp.203-207, 1987.
DOI : 10.1016/0169-5347(87)90021-8

S. L. Goodacre, Population structure, history and gene flow in a group of closely related land snails: genetic variation in Partula from the Society Islands of the Pacific, Molecular Ecology, vol.263, issue.1, pp.55-68, 2002.
DOI : 10.1006/bijl.1999.0386

G. K. Roderick and R. G. Gillespie, Speciation and phylogeography of Hawaiian terrestrial arthropods, Molecular Ecology, vol.7, issue.4, pp.519-531, 1998.
DOI : 10.1086/285901

A. Papadopoulou, I. Anastasiou, and A. P. Vogler, Revisiting the Insect Mitochondrial Molecular Clock: The Mid-Aegean Trench Calibration, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.27, issue.7, pp.1659-1672, 2010.
DOI : 10.1093/molbev/msq051

K. Uto, Y. Yamamoto, S. M. Uchiumi, S. Ishizuka, O. Kogiso et al., New K-Ar ages of the Society Islands, French Polynesia, and implications for the Society hotspot feature, Earth, Planets and Space, vol.54, issue.10, pp.979-746, 2007.
DOI : 10.1186/BF03352750

R. Sokal and N. Oden, Spatial autocorrelation in biology: 1. Methodology, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol.10, issue.2, pp.199-228, 1978.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1095-8312.1978.tb00013.x

R. Sokal and N. Oden, Spatial autocorrelation in biology: 2. Some biological implications and four applications of evolutionary and ecological interest, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol.10, issue.2, pp.229-249, 1978.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1095-8312.1978.tb00014.x

J. L. Gittleman and M. Kot, Adaptation: Statistics and a Null Model for Estimating Phylogenetic Effects, Systematic Zoology, vol.39, issue.3, pp.227-241, 1990.
DOI : 10.2307/2992183

R. Flecketon and W. Jetz, Space versus Phylogeny: disentangling phylogenetic and spatial signals in comparative data, Proc. R. Soc. B, vol.276, pp.21-30, 2009.

B. Epperson, Covariances among join-count spatial autocorrelation measures, Theoretical Population Biology, vol.64, issue.1, pp.81-87, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0040-5809(03)00023-6

T. Gotoh, J. Sugasawa, . Noda, . Hiroaki, and Y. Kitashima, Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility in Japanese populations of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), Experimental and Applied Acarology, vol.265, issue.1, pp.1-16, 1007.
DOI : 10.1007/s10493-007-9072-3

T. P. Rodgers-gray, J. E. Smith, E. A. Ashcroft, R. E. Isaac, and A. M. Dunn, Mechanisms of parasite-induced sex reversal in Gammarus duebeni, International Journal for Parasitology, vol.34, issue.6, pp.747-753, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijpara.2004.01.005

S. L. Goodacre, O. Y. Martin, C. F. Thomas, and G. M. Hewitt, Wolbachia and other endosymbiont infections in spiders, Molecular Ecology, vol.265, issue.2, pp.517-527, 2006.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02802.x

J. H. Schulenburg, G. D. Hurst, D. Tetzlaff, G. E. Booth, I. A. Zakharov et al., History of Infection With Different Male- Killing Bacteria in the Two-Spot Ladybird Beetle Adalia bipunctata Revealed Through Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Analysis, Genetics, vol.160, pp.1075-1086, 2002.

R. Giordano, J. J. Jackson, and H. M. Robertson, The role of Wolbachia bacteria in reproductive incompatibilities and hybrid zones of Diabrotica beetles and Gryllus crickets, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.94, issue.21, pp.94-11439, 1997.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.94.21.11439

H. Braig, H. Guzman, R. Tesh, O. Neill, and S. , Replacement of the natural Wolbachia symbiont of Drosophila simulans with a mosquito counterpart, Nature, vol.367, issue.6462, pp.453-455, 1994.
DOI : 10.1038/367453a0

S. P. Sinkins, H. R. Braig, and S. Oneill, Wolbachia pipientis: Bacterial Density and Unidirectional Cytoplasmic Incompatibility between Infected Populations of Aedes albopictus, Experimental Parasitology, vol.81, issue.3, pp.284-291, 1995.
DOI : 10.1006/expr.1995.1119

Z. Li, H. Lin, and X. Guo, Prevalence of Wolbachia Infection in Bemisia tabaci, Current Microbiology, vol.265, issue.6, pp.467-471, 1007.
DOI : 10.1007/s00284-007-0011-7

Y. Kikuchi and T. Fukatsu, Diversity of Wolbachia Endosymbionts in Heteropteran Bugs, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.69, issue.10, pp.6082-6090, 2003.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.69.10.6082-6090.2003

M. J. Perrot-minnot, L. R. Guo, and J. Werren, Single and Double Infections with Wolbachia in the Parasitic Wasp Nasonia vitripennis: Effects on Compatibility, Genetics, vol.143, issue.2, pp.961-972, 1996.

T. Wenseleers, F. Ito, V. Borm, S. Huybrechts, R. Volckaert et al., Widespread occurrence of the microorganism Wolbachia in ants, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.265, issue.1404, pp.1447-1452, 1998.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1998.0456

F. Grandjean, T. Rigaud, R. Raimond, P. Juchault, C. S. Souty-grosset et al., Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism and feminizing sex factors dynamics in a natural population of Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Isopoda) Discovery of a Novel Wolbachia Supergroup in Isoptera, Genetica Curr. Microbiol, vol.92, issue.51, pp.55-60, 1993.

T. Kumpulainen, A. Grapputo, and J. Mappes, PARASITES AND SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN PSYCHID MOTHS, Evolution, vol.10, issue.7, pp.1511-1520, 2004.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1420-9101.1999.00119.x

A. Thipaksorn, W. Jamnongluk, and P. Kittayapong, Molecular Evidence of Wolbachia Infection in Natural Populations of Tropical Odonates, Current Microbiology, vol.47, issue.4, pp.314-0318, 1007.
DOI : 10.1007/s00284-002-4010-4

P. Dong, J. J. Wang, F. Hu, and F. Jia, Influence of Wolbachia Infection on the Fitness of the Stored-Product Pest Liposcelis tricolor (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae), Journal of Economic Entomology, vol.100, issue.4, pp.1476-1481, 2007.
DOI : 10.1093/jee/100.4.1476

D. W. Zeh, J. A. Zeh, and M. M. Bonilla, Wolbachia, sex ratio bias and apparent male killing in the harlequin beetle riding pseudoscorpion, Heredity, vol.265, issue.1, pp.41-49, 2005.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.hdy.6800666

C. H. Gorham, Q. Q. Fang, and L. A. Durden, WOLBACHIA ENDOSYMBIONTS IN FLEAS (SIPHONAPTERA), Journal of Parasitology, vol.89, issue.2, pp.283-289, 2003.
DOI : 10.1645/0022-3395(2003)089[0283:WEIFS]2.0.CO;2

N. Arakaki, T. Miyoshi, and H. Noda, Wolbachia-mediated parthenogenesis in the predatory thrips Franklinothrips vespiformis (Thysanoptera: Insecta), Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.268, issue.1471, pp.1011-1016, 2001.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.2001.1628

S. A. West, J. M. Cook, J. H. Qerren, and C. J. Godfray, Wolbachia in two insect host-parasitoid communities, Molecular Ecology, vol.7, issue.11, pp.1457-1465, 1998.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.ento.42.1.587

Y. Tagami and K. Miura, Distribution and prevalence of Wolbachia in Japanese populations of Lepidoptera, Insect Molecular Biology, vol.265, issue.4, pp.359-364, 2004.
DOI : 10.1111/j.0962-1075.2004.00492.x

T. Gotoh, H. Noda, and X. Hong, Wolbachia distribution and cytoplasmic incompatibility based on a survey of 42 spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Japan, Heredity, vol.91, issue.3, pp.208-216, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.hdy.6800329

S. Rowley, R. J. Raven, and E. A. Mcgraw, Wolbachia pipientisin Australian spiders, Curr. Microbiol, vol.40, pp.208-214, 2004.

L. Baldo, L. Prendini, A. Corthals, and J. Werren, Wolbachia Are Present in Southern African Scorpions and Cluster with Supergroup F, Current Microbiology, vol.95, issue.5, pp.367-373, 1007.
DOI : 10.1007/s00284-007-9009-4

P. M. Simões, G. Mialdea, D. Reiss, M. Sagot, and S. Charlat, Wolbachia detection: an assessment of standard PCR Protocols, Molecular Ecology Resources, vol.265, issue.3, pp.567-572, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2010.02955.x

W. Arthofer, M. Riegler, D. Schneider, M. Krammer, W. J. Miller et al., Hidden Wolbachia diversity in field populations of the European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera, Tephritidae), Mol. Eco, issue.18, pp.183816-3830, 2009.

S. P. Sinkins, H. R. Braig, and S. L. Oneill, Wolbachia Superinfections and the Expression of Cytoplasmic Incompatibility, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.261, issue.1362, pp.325-330, 1995.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1995.0154

S. L. Dobson, E. J. Marsland, and W. Rattanadechakul, <I>Wolbachia</I>-Induced Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in Single- and Superinfected <I>Aedes albopictus</I> (Diptera: Culicidae), Journal of Medical Entomology, vol.38, issue.3, pp.382-387, 2001.
DOI : 10.1603/0022-2585-38.3.382

M. J. Perrot-minot, L. R. Guo, and J. Werren, Single and double infections with Wolbachiain the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis: effects on compatibility, Genetics, vol.143, pp.661-972, 1996.

S. Van-borm, T. Wenseleers, J. Billen, and J. J. Boomsma, Cloning and sequencing of wsp encoding gene fragments reveals a diversity of co-infecting Wolbachia strains in Acromyrmex leafcutter ants, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol.26, issue.1, pp.102-109, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00298-1

G. Malloch, B. Fenton, and R. D. Butcher, Molecular evidence for multiple infections of a new subgroup of Wolbachia in the European raspberry beetle Byturus tomentosus, Molecular Ecology, vol.261, issue.1, pp.77-90, 2000.
DOI : 10.1006/anbe.1998.0888

X. Zhang, S. Luckhart, T. , Z. Pfeiffer, and D. G. , (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Eastern United States, Environmental Entomology, vol.39, issue.2, pp.396-405, 2010.
DOI : 10.1603/EN09276

A. Jeyaprakash and M. A. Hoy, Long PCR improves Wolbachia DNA amplification: wsp sequences found in 76% of sixty-three arthropod species, Insect Molecular Biology, vol.261, issue.9, pp.393-405, 2000.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1998.0429

T. Ikeda, H. Ishikawa, and . Sasaki, Regulation of Wolbachia Density in the Mediterranean Flour Moth, Ephestia kuehniella, and the Almond Moth, Cadra cautella, Zoological Science, vol.20, issue.2, pp.153-157, 2003.
DOI : 10.2108/zsj.20.153

M. Hiroki, Y. Tagami, K. Miura, and Y. Kato, Multiple infection with Wolbachia inducing different reproductive manipulations in the butterfly Eurema hecabe, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.271, issue.1549, pp.1751-1755, 2004.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.2004.2769

J. A. Russell, The ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are unique and enigmatic hosts of prevalent Wolbachia (Alphaproteobacteria) symbionts. Myrmec. News, pp.7-23, 2012.

A. K. Dunn and E. Stabb, Culture-Independent Characterization of the Microbiota of the Ant Lion Myrmeleon mobilis (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae), Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.71, issue.12, pp.8784-8794, 2005.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.71.12.8784-8794.2005

A. R. Weeks, R. Velten, and R. Stouthamer, Incidence of a new sex-ratio-distorting endosymbiotic bacterium among arthropods, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.270, issue.1526, pp.1857-1865, 1526.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.2003.2425

R. Andreotti, A. Perez-de-leon, S. Dowd, F. Guerrero, K. Bendele et al., Assessment of bacterial diversity in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus through tag-encoded pyrosequencing, BMC Microbiology, vol.11, issue.1, p.6, 2011.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2180-11-6

M. Meyer, U. Stenzel, and M. Hofreiter, Parallel tagged sequencing on the 454 platform, Nature Protocols, vol.249, issue.2, pp.267-278, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/nprot.2007.520

R. Raychoudhury, L. Baldo, . Oliveira, C. De, and J. H. Werren, SPECIES COMPLEX, Evolution, vol.265, issue.1, pp.165-183, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00533.x

J. H. Werren, L. Baldo, and M. E. Clark, Wolbachia: master manipulators of invertebrate biology, Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol.12, issue.10, pp.741-751, 2008.
DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.64515-0

H. Ochman, S. Elwyn, and N. A. Moran, Calibrating bacterial evolution, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.96, issue.22, pp.96-12638, 1999.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.96.22.12638