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Caractérisation et modélisation de la dynamique de l'évapotranspiration en Afrique Soudanienne en zone de socle : interaction entre les aquifères et la végétation

Abstract : In West Africa, millions of people rely on water resources exposed to the monsoon variability. In this context, the aim of this thesis is to better understand hydrological processes in bedrock areas, and more particularly to estimate the role of lateral redistribution of soil water by the interactions between underground reservoirs, vegetation and atmosphere, using hydrogeological prospection and modeling at field and catena scale. This work is supported by the experimental device implemented in the small Ara catchment in the framework of the AMMA-CATCH observatory. The use of the ParFlow-CLM model allows the simulation of transfers in the saturated and the vadose zone by solving the Richards equation in 3D. The model was forced using observed atmospheric forcing at the surface. We first identify influential parameters for vertical water transfers. Then a spatial characterization of these parameters is carried out. The 1D version of the Parflow-CLM model is assessed using observed data. We show that the model provides relevant times series of the surface energy balance and of soil water distribution as compared to the observations. The impact of the spatial variability of the hydraulic parameters at the field scale (<1 ha) is studied. Finally, the bedrock geometry and the spatial distribution of vegetation are taken into account in the modelling. This allows the identification of horizontal subsurface lateral fluxes, which generate wet and dry patterns, which are related to the spatial distribution of evapotranspiration.
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Dorothée Jabot-Robert. Caractérisation et modélisation de la dynamique de l'évapotranspiration en Afrique Soudanienne en zone de socle : interaction entre les aquifères et la végétation. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Grenoble, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENU024⟩. ⟨tel-00849151⟩

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