Spectroscopie Laser avec des cavités résonantes de haute finesse couplées à un peigne de fréquences : ML-CEAS et vernier effet techniques. Applications à la mesure in situ de molécules réactives dans les domaines UV et visible.

Abstract : The atmospheric chemistry community suffers a lack of fast, reliable and space resolved measurements for a wide set of reactive molecules (e.g. radicals such as OH, NO3, BrO, IO, etc). Due to their high reactivity, these molecules largely control the lifetime and concentration of numerous key atmospheric species, and may have an important impact on the climate. The concentrations of such radicals are extremely low (ppbv or less) and highly variable in time and space, which imposes a real challenge during the detection. In the first part of this thesis, a compact, robust and transportable UV spectrometer is developed, exploiting the Mode-Locked Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (ML-CEAS) technique to measure pptv and sub-pptv levels of atmospherically important reactive molecules, in particular, halogen oxide radicals, to respond to the emerging needs. The ML-CEAS technique is based on coupling a Mode-Locked femtosecond laser to a high finesse optical cavity, which acts as a photon trap to increase the interaction between the light and the intracavity gas sample, which highly enhances the absorption sensitivity. The detection limit obtained for the IO radical is 20 ppqv (part per quadrillion), which is an impressive result. In the second part of this thesis, a new spectroscopic technique is developed, called Vernier effect, which is also based on the interaction between a mode-locked femtosecond laser with a high finesse optical cavity. This technique provides detection sensitivity similar to that of ML-CEAS technique, but the advantage is that the number of the spectral elements is given by the cavity finesse, so it can reach ten thousands, as well as this technique has a simple setup, where the spectrograph is replaced by a photodiode. Additionally, the time required to measure one output absorption spectrum can be less than 1 ms.
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Chadi Abd Alrahman. Spectroscopie Laser avec des cavités résonantes de haute finesse couplées à un peigne de fréquences : ML-CEAS et vernier effet techniques. Applications à la mesure in situ de molécules réactives dans les domaines UV et visible.. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université de Grenoble, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENY095⟩. ⟨tel-00849145⟩

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