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Synthèse et caractérisation des oligomères et polymères Ä-conjugués nanostructurés pour applications en photovoltaïque

Abstract : Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells have been a subject of increasing interest during the last decade as they are promising candidates for low cost renewable energy production. In order to obtain reasonably high performance organic solar cells, development of efficient light absorbing materials are of primary focus in the OPV field. In this context, the present work is focused on the design and development of new electron donor materials (oligomers and polymers) as light absorbing materials based on “Donor-Acceptor” approach alternating electron donating group and electron withdrawing group. Three main families of electron donating group are studied: oligothiophenes, fluorene and indacenodithiophene. Fluorenone unit is the principal electron withdrawing group studied and a direct comparison with the system based on benzothiadiazole unit as electron withdrawing unit is also provided. Three main synthetic methods were employed: oxidative polymerization mediated by Iron (III) chloride and Palladium cross-coupling reactions according to Suzuki coupling or Stille coupling conditions. Spectroscopic studies on absorption and photoluminescence have demonstrated the presence of characteristic charge transfer complex in all the studied D-A oligomers and polymers allowing the extension of the absorption spectrum. The D-A oligomers and polymers have shown an overall low optical band gap of 1.6-2 eV with absorption spectra up to 600 to 800 nm. The nature of the charge transfer complex transitions bands were found to be depending on the strength of the electron donating unit and the electron withdrawing unit. Furthermore molecular packing in solution and in solid state has also demonstrated to contribute to extension of absorption spectrum. The HOMO and LUMO energy levels of the oligomers and polymers were determined by electrochemical measurements. Fluorene-based polymers have shown low lying HOMO energy levels, and these polymers demonstrate high open circuit voltage (Voc) in photovoltaic cell when combined with fullerenes derivatives PCBM with Voc values close to 0.9 V. The oligomers and polymers tested in photovoltaic devices have shown promising results with the highest power conversion efficiency obtained of 2.1 % when combined with fullerenes PCBMC70. These results were obtained after only limited numbers of device optimizations such as the active materials ratios and thermal annealing. Therefore further optimization of devices may exhibit higher power conversion efficiencies.
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Wan Zaireen Nisa Yahya. Synthèse et caractérisation des oligomères et polymères Ä-conjugués nanostructurés pour applications en photovoltaïque. Sciences agricoles. Université de Grenoble, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENV074⟩. ⟨tel-00849125⟩

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