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Influence des impuretés des kaolins sur les propriétés des produits de cuisson.

Abstract : This work concerns the study of the effect of impurities on the physico-chemical phenomena occurring duringthe sintering of kaolin between 900 and 1600 °C and the resulting physical properties. Kaolin is used in the field ofceramics: traditional ceramics, porcelain, refractory ceramic (mullite, chamotte), electrotechnical porcelain, etc. ... It iscustomary to control the content and nature of impurities that may limit their applications.Seven kaolin were selected for the impurities they contain namely; Feldspar, quartz and iron oxides in kaolin of Tamazert (Algeria). Organic matters and manganese oxide for kaolin of Djebel debbagh (Algeria). Organic matter, iron oxides, gibbsite and anatase in kaolin of Charentes basin (France).Kaolinite and halloysite, with the same composition, is the major mineral in each case. All the materials werereduced by grinding to the size of 63 μm.The first part of the study consists of physico-chemical characterizations of different kaolin to identify andquantify the major minerals that compose them.The second part concerns the understanding of thermal transformations that occur during the process ofdehydroxylation of kaolinite (metakaolin) and during the formation of mullite and cristobalite at high temperatures(1600 ° C). The microstructure, shrinkage, densification, the porosity are the main parameters studied in this part.The third part deals with the properties of kaolin during sintering where colorimetric, mechanical and dielectricproperties were studied.The effect of impurities and the microstructure during sintering of these properties (color, mechanical anddielectric) are widely developed. During sintering, crystallite size of mullite of different kaolins increases withtemperature. These crystallites incorporate impurities coloring such as Fe2 +/ Fe3 +, Ti4 +/ Ti2 + and Mn4 +/ Mn 2 +(depending on temperature), resulting in the increase of the chromaticity and the decrease in brightness from 1100 ° C.The transformation of anatase to rutile phase decreases the parameter of clarity of the charente kaolin. Presence ofcristobalite in the case of kaolin of Djebel Debbagh (which is rich in manganese) participates to the increase in claritybeyond 1400 ° C. The presence of feldspar in kaolin of Tamazert improves their dielectric properties through theformation of the glassy phase. When increasing the temperature at 1300 ° C, these properties increase. Relativepermittivity of the calcined kaolin decrease with increasing frequency (107-109Hz). The dielectric losses are largercompared to those found in materials used in the dielectric which are in general <10-3.The last part is devoted to the application of kaolin naturally rich in anatase in the field of dielectric porcelain.The identification and quantification of phases formed during sintering at 1300 °C, porosity, microstructure (observedby SEM) and mechanical and dielectric properties are determined. The theoretical relative permittivity obtained bycalculation using a mixing rule of the mineralogical phases formed agrees with the experimental values.
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Nedjima Bouzidi. Influence des impuretés des kaolins sur les propriétés des produits de cuisson.. Autre. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012EMSE0660⟩. ⟨tel-00847400⟩

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