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Mobiliser une analyse de l'activité comme aide à la conception et à l'évaluation d'un Environnement Virtuel pour l'Apprentissage Humain : un exemple en implantologie dentaire

Abstract : The objective of this thesis is twofold: 1) to build knowledge in the theoretical field “didactique professionnelle” for living systems activities; 2) to help design and assess VirTeaSy. An analysis of the literature in dental V.E.T showed that “haptic V.E.T.” seem to be the most relevant for the challenge of training in dental implantology. However, some studies show, there are still problems to be solved in terms of design methodology. Indeed, the usual design approach relies on collaboration between dental experts and IT engineers. In this approach, IT engineers carry on the V.E.T. development. This means that the result is often a V.E.T. developed from an IT point of view rather than from a learning point of view. To overcome issues associated with this type of approach, we have chosen to include experts in pedagogy in design process of Virteasy.We have undertaken an analysis of activity within the framework of “didactique professionnelle” in order to identify the skills which the students were going to learn with our V.E.T. The final aim of this analysis is identification of the “conceptual structure of the situation” (structure conceptuelle de la situation) based on “organizing concepts” (concept organisateur) of the activity links with variables and indicators. Our first study deals with identifying the “conceptual structure of the situation” in dental implantology. Recorded data (movies) were gathered from ten dentist experts during a live implant surgery. This was followed by in depth interviews within the dentists watching the recording of the surgery and verbalizing their mental process during the procedure. A content analysis of the interview showed that the mental process of the dentist performing an implantology procedure is based on two concepts. The first is concept is “emergence”, the dentist’s actions are guided by the prosthetic teeth which is going to be fitted on the implant. The second is “anchorage”, the dentist’s action are guided by the longevity of the implant. These two concepts are not always compatible which shows the real challenge faced by implant experts. VirTeaSy design is based on the results of Study 1 and make with a five-step methodology Our experience shows that a lot decision have to be made at each stage of the methodology. These decisions were based initially on literature and led to the definition of general design elements. These components were then specified using the results of the activity analysis. This showed how important and relevant an activity analysis was in making specific and accurate decisions in the design of V.E.T. Because of this process, the V.E.T. is enable to teach skills and competences that students must acquire to perform procedures in real life situations. The study 2 focused on learning transfer from virtual to reality. To do this, thirty-two dentists are randomized into three groups: one group (n = 10) named Group with Virtual Training (GVT); one group (n = 11) named Group with Traditional Training (GTT) and one group (n = 11 ) named Control Group (CG) receiving no training. All subjects were novice to dental implantology. One week after training, all subjects had to perform a task during which they had to demonstrate and apply the skills acquired during the training (“the reinvestment” task consisting of placing an implant on a human corpse). For each subject, we measured the difference between the required performance and the performance achieved using a scanner. We recorded three kind of measure: angle; depth and center. The results showed no significant difference between the three groups. Extensions of this thesis are being implemented. Some are based on international partnerships with well-known Universities. These extensions are: 1) to extend the activity analysis to an international population, 2) To evaluate VirTeaSy through various protocols including features from the activity analysis, 3) To broaden the scope of using VirTeasy in dental training.
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Jérémy Cormier. Mobiliser une analyse de l'activité comme aide à la conception et à l'évaluation d'un Environnement Virtuel pour l'Apprentissage Humain : un exemple en implantologie dentaire. Autre [cs.OH]. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012BRES0027⟩. ⟨tel-00844758⟩

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