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Les nuages de glace en arctique : mécanismes de formation

Caroline Jouan 1, 2, 3 
Abstract : Arctic ice cloud formation during winter is poorly understood mainly due to the lack of observations and the remoteness of this region. Yet, their influence on Northern Hemisphere weather and climate is of paramount importance, and the modification of their properties, linked to aerosol-cloud interaction processes, needs to be better understood.Large concentration of aerosols in the Arctic during winter is associated to long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosols from the mid-latitudes to the Arctic. Observations and models show that this may lead to a significant transport of acidified aerosol particles. Laboratory and in-situ measurements show that at cold temperature (< -30°C), acidic coating may reduce the ice nucleating properties of ice nuclei (IN). Therefore, the IN concentration is reduced in these regions, resulting to a smaller concentration of larger ice crystals and because of the reduced competition for the same available moisture.Extensive measurements from ground-based sites and satellite remote sensing (CloudSat and CALIPSO) reveal the existence of two Types of Ice Clouds (TICs) in the Arctic during the polar night and early spring. The first Type of Ice Clouds (TIC-1) are visible only by the lidar while the second Type of Ice Clouds (TIC-2) are detected by both the lidar and radar. TIC-2 are divided into TIC-2A and TIC-2B. TIC-2A are topped by a cover of non-precipitating very small (radar-unseen) ice crystals (TIC-1), while TIC-2B are not. They are characterized by a low concentration of large ice crystals. It is hypothesized that the observed low concentration of large ice crystals, leading to precipitation (e.g. cloud regime TIC-2B), is linked to the acidification of aerosols. To check this, we are combining case studies and statistical approaches to analyse aerosol transport and cloud properties in the Arctic.The first part of the thesis investigate the microphysical properties of TIC-1/2A and TIC-2B, analysing airborne in-situ and satellite measurements of specific cases observed during the ISDAC campaign (Alaska, April 2008). For the first time, Arctic TIC-1/2A and TIC-2B microstructures are compared using in-situ cloud observations. Results show that the differences between them are confined in the upper part of the clouds where ice nucleation occurs. TIC-2B were characterized by fewer (< 10 L-1) and larger (> 110 μm) ice crystals, a larger ice supersaturation (> 15 %) and a fewer ice nuclei (IN) concentration (< 2 order of magnitude) when compared to TIC-1/2A. Ice crystal growth in TIC-2B clouds seems explosive whereas it seems more gradual in TIC-1/2A. It is hypothesized that these differences are linked to the number concentration and the chemical composition of aerosols. The second part of the thesis investigate the origin of air masses forming two specific cases ; TIC-1/2A (1 April 2008) and TIC-2B (15 April 2008), using trajectory tools and satellite data.(...)
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Submitted on : Friday, April 4, 2014 - 4:04:53 PM
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Caroline Jouan. Les nuages de glace en arctique : mécanismes de formation. Sciences de la Terre. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013CLF22350⟩. ⟨tel-00843520v2⟩



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