Rôle des complexes de gadolinium dans le mécanisme de la fibrose systémique néphrogénique

Abstract : Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a rare systemic fibrosing disorder which has been described in patients with severe or end stage renal failure. NSF is associated with prior administration of certain gadolinium complexes (GCs), used as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, particularly those which have the lowest thermodynamic stability. The most widely accepted hypothesis regarding the mechanism is based on profibrotic effects of free Gd3+ following in vivo dissociation of the less stable GCs. Nevertheless, there is no conclusive evidence so far. The pathophysiology is not completely understood, especially due to the lack of relevant non-clinical models. The purpose of our thesis was to investigate the relationship between physicochemical properties of GCs (molecular structure, thermodynamic stability) and the risk of chronic toxicity (especially fibrosis), in order to enhance our understanding of their role in the mechanism of NSF. We have set-up various non-clinical models of NSF in renally-impaired rats. We also compared the effects of all categories of GCs on these models. A high systemic toxicity, associated with macroscopic skin lesions and dermal fibrosis, was observed after the administration of gadodiamide (a linear and nonionic GC with a low thermodynamic stability). Whereas more stable, macrocyclic GCs were well tolerated. These findings seem clinically-relevant because the vast majority of NSF cases are associated with gadodiamide. We also showed that systemic and skin toxicities depend on the baseline renal function, and that hyperphosphataemia sensitizes renally-impaired rats to the fibrotic effects of gadodiamide. Our data suggest that these factors are, actually, risk factors for NSF. We observed in vivo dissociation of two linear GCs, gadodiamide and gadopentetic acid, with gradual release of soluble Gd3+, in renally-impaired rats. Macrocyclic agents remained stable. This observation was also confirmed both in rat and human serum by the relaxometry technique. Our results are also consistent with an interaction between dissociated Gd3+ and serum proteins. We also demonstrated that elevated serum phosphate levels accelerates the release of Gd3+. Taken all together, our results suggest a causal role of dissociated Gd3+ in gadodiamide-induced skin lesions in renally-impaired rats. Finally, we identified the involvement of the canonical signaling pathway of TGFβ, the central mediator of the fibrotic response, in gadodiamide-treated rats with a moderate renal failure. Our work is consistent with a causal role of dissociated Gd in the mechanism of NSF.
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Nathalie Fretellier. Rôle des complexes de gadolinium dans le mécanisme de la fibrose systémique néphrogénique. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA05P609⟩. ⟨tel-00843108⟩

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