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Évolution du VIH : méthodes, modèles et algorithmes

Abstract : Nucleotide sequences data enable the inference of phylogenetic trees, or phylogenies, describing their evolutionary relationships during evolution. Combining these sequences with their sampling date or country of origin, allows inferring the temporal or spatial localization of their common ancestors. These data and methods are widely used with viral sequences, and particularly with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to trace the viral epidemic history over time and throughout the globe. Using sequences sampled at different points in time (or heterochronous) is also a mean to estimate their substitution rate, which characterizes the speed of evolution. The most commonly used methods to achieve these tasks are accurate, but are computationally heavy since they are based on complex models, and can only handle few hundreds of sequences. With an increasing number of sequences available in the databases, often several thousand for a given study, the development of fast and accurate methods becomes essential. Here, we present a new distance-based method, named Ultrametric Least Squares, which is based on the principle of least squares (very popular in phylogenetics) to estimate the substitution rate of a set of heterochronous sequences and the dates of their most recent common ancestors. We demonstrate that the criterion to be optimized is piecewise parabolic, and provide an efficient algorithm to find the global minimum. Using sequences sampled at different locations also helps to trace transmission chains of an epidemic. In this respect, we used all available sequences (~3,500) of HIV-1 subtype C, responsible for nearly 50% of global HIV-1 infections, to estimate its major migratory flows on a worldwide scale and its geographic origin. Innovative tools, based on the principle of parsimony, combined with several statistical criteria were used to synthesize and interpret information in a large phylogeny representing all the studied sequences. Finally, the temporal and geographical origins of the HIV-1 subtype C in Senegal were further explored and more specifically for men who have sex with men.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00842785
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Submitted on : Tuesday, July 9, 2013 - 2:24:40 PM
Last modification on : Friday, August 5, 2022 - 3:02:17 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Thursday, October 10, 2013 - 4:09:53 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-00842785, version 1

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Matthieu Jung. Évolution du VIH : méthodes, modèles et algorithmes. Bio-informatique [q-bio.QM]. Université Montpellier II - Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, 2012. Français. ⟨tel-00842785⟩

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