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Implication de la plasticité cérébrale hypothalamique dans la régulation de l'homéostasie énergétique chez la souris : effet d'un régime gras

Abstract : The hypothalamus plays a crucial role in the control of energy balance. In adult brain, this area remain plastic and the cellular network can be rapidly modified under environmental pressures. Studies show than hypothalamic remodeling are disturbed when metabolic diseases such as obesity or type II diabetes are declared. In this study we hypothesized that a high fat diet (HFD) inducing obesity could rapidly causes cell modifications in the adult hypothalamus network. To answer this question, we have established a one week HFD mouse model, and evaluated to type of hypothalamic plasticity which are synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Our results show that HFD leads to an increase of the excitatory pre-synaptic tonus on the POMC neurons. This phenomenon implies polysialisation of the adhesion protein NCAM. We also demonstated than this rapid rewiring is reinforced by the increase of cell renewal, and more specifically by an increase of cell proliferation. Blockade of proliferation with the anti-mitotic araC prevent food intake regulation observed in control mice and accelerate the onset of obesity. These results suggest that neoformed cells are crucial for the maintenance of energy balance. In fact, new cells mainly differenciate into neurons, and the proportion of new POMC neurones of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) is twice the one of mice under standard diet (STD). HFD directs maturation of new neurons toward anorexigenic phenotype. Our experiments demonstrate than the hypothalamus rapidly remodels after an energy imbalance, and establish a succession of changes leading to a rapid restablishment of energy homeostasis
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Alexandra Gouazé. Implication de la plasticité cérébrale hypothalamique dans la régulation de l'homéostasie énergétique chez la souris : effet d'un régime gras. Sciences agricoles. Université de Bourgogne, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012DIJOS043⟩. ⟨tel-00841824⟩

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