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Élaboration de matériaux à base de farine de maïs : évaluation et compréhension des relations entre structure et cinétique de biodégradation

Abstract : In order to develop materials from a cheaper renewable resource than starch, materials based on corn flour were prepared by extrusion and injection. The physicochemical characterization of these materials revealed that the glycerol content (used as plasticizer) and the profiles of shear zones used during extrusion significantly influence the destructuration intensity of starch and proteins of that composed corn flour. This could be established by combining the results of X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and laser scanning confocal microscopy observations. In addition, the kinetics of the hydrolysis of starch into reducing sugars by amylolytic enzymes in the presence and absence of proteolytic enzymes significantly differed only when the initial structuration of proteins in corn flour was preserved. The materials obtained presented limitations for some applications namely due to their high hygroscopicity and rapid aging over time. The addition of polybutylene succinate (PBS) to flour-glycerol mixture improved mechanical properties and reduced hygroscopicity of the materials. The observation of these materials by scanning electron microscopy showed that corn flour and PBS are incompatible and have a morphology that varies according to the PBS content in the mixture (30, 50 or 70%). The study of the hydrolysis kinetics of starch corn flour by amylolytic enzymes contributed to highlight the influence of several parameters : (i) starch crystallinity, (ii) specific area, (iii) porosity, and (iv) material morphology. In addition, the evaluation of the microbial biodegradation in liquid and solid media aerobically or anaerobically showed the same overall trends as the results obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis. Thus, materials produced from formulations having PBS ratios exceeding 50% are not biodegradable according to the ISO 14855/1999 and are weakly hydrolyzed by amylolytic enzymes.
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Fouzia Jbilou. Élaboration de matériaux à base de farine de maïs : évaluation et compréhension des relations entre structure et cinétique de biodégradation. Autre. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011LYO10066⟩. ⟨tel-00841383⟩

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