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Theses

Synthèse, étude et caractérisation de nouveaux catalyseurs moléculaires pour la réduction du CO2 en vue de son utilisation comme source de carbone

Abstract : This PhD takes place in the general context of possible solutions to global warming and peak oil issues. It mostly deals with the study and development of molecular electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide reduction. This process may open the way to the use and valorization of CO2 as a raw material. In the first part, a metallocavitand, which structure is based on a calix[4]arene modified by four phenanthroline tris-carbonyl rhenium(I) complexes, was studied in solution and deposited on a conductive transparent surface. The aim of this study was to control through an electrochemical stimulus the closing and opening of the wide rim of the cavitand. Complexity of the redox properties of the metallocavitand led us to investigate in detail the electrochemical properties of simpler examples of these rhenium(I) complexes. These properties were previously described in the literature ; however, there was disagreement in the interpretation of the results. Finally this study led us to a more precise and better understanding of the mechanism of the reduction of CO2 by a complex of this kind. In the second part, which is the main part of this PhD, synthesis, physico-chemical characterization and spectro-electrochemical study of bipyridine tris-carbonyl manganese complexes, analogues of the rhenium complexes mentioned above, were undertaken. The aim was to develop an innovative catalyst for the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide, based on a metallic complex, by substituting rare and noble metals currently used by a non-noble and abundant metal: manganese. Electrochemical properties of newly synthesized manganese complexes were investigated in detail. Simulations of cyclic voltammetry, associated with mechanism studies by UV-vis spectro-electrochemistry, allowed us to determine kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the different chemical reactions coupled with the irreversible electron transfers. These manganese complexes proved to electrocatalyse the reduction of carbon dioxide at least as efficiently as the analog rhenium complexes which were, until now, the best system for this application. These manganese electrocatalysts exhibit a very good selectivity (high faradic yields and no or very little H2) and a good efficiency for reduction of CO2 to CO in aqueous-organic media. Preparative scale electrolysis operates at low overpotential. Mechanisms of the different catalytic pathways were studied using UV-vis and EPR (continuous wave or pulsed) spectro-electrochemistry associated with DFT calculations. A key-intermediate was evinced and investigated. Finally the study of photo-induced decarbonylation reactions of these complexes is also described.
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Marc Bourrez. Synthèse, étude et caractérisation de nouveaux catalyseurs moléculaires pour la réduction du CO2 en vue de son utilisation comme source de carbone. Sciences agricoles. Université de Grenoble, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENV048⟩. ⟨tel-00841046v2⟩

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