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Apport des informations moléculaires et cellulaires pour la caractérisation de la résistance de l'huître plate européenne vis-à-vis de la bonamiose, et pour la détection de signatures de la sélection naturelle

Abstract : The European flat oyster, an endemic species from European coasts, is classified in the category of “endangered and/or declining species”. Indeed, the natural beds of this oyster, consumed since ancient times, have gradually been decimated by over-exploitation and by successive emergence of parasitic diseases. The parasite that causes the disease called bonamiosis has contributed to drastically reduce the French and European aquacultural production of flat oyster. Marine bivalve molluscs display two specificities that restrict possibilities to fight against diseases: they are grown in an open environment, and possess an innate immune system lacking in adaptive response. In this context, the selection of animals naturally resistant to bonamiosis is a very promising issue to revive the culture of the European flat oyster. To better understand the phenomenon of resistance against bonamiosis, several studies have focused on understanding the mechanisms of response of the flat oyster, and on the identification of genomic regions potentially involved in the mechanisms of disease resistance.In this context, the present work consisted in improving our understanding of the resistance of the European flat oyster against bonamiosis, and in better characterizing the genetic resources and the structuring of its natural populations.Considering that the flat oyster is not a model organism, a preliminary genetic map was available for this species. It was therefore necessary to develop new molecular tools to optimize the coverage of its genome. SNP markers (single nucleotide polymorphism) have been developed by direct sequencing of PCR products and high-throughput sequencing.To improve the understanding of resistance against bonamiosis, three experiments of infection with the parasite have been performed and used to characterize phenotypes of the oyster response at several study levels.1 – At the inter-family level, the objective was to detect genomic regions (QTL) associated with the mechanisms of response (survival/mortality) against bonamiosis in several families of oysters. This approach enabled to identify several genomic regions of interest shared between families, and new ones that had not yet been detected. 2 – At the intra-family level, the objective was to detect genomic regions associated with the regulation of haemocytic activities (QTLs) or genes expression (eQTL) previously identified as potentially involved in the response to bonamiosis. This approach had never been used before on a bivalve mollusc. It has enabled to identify a positional correlation between the genomic regions involved in the survival or mortality to bonamiosis and those involved in the regulation of cellular or molecular responses.3 – At the population level, the experiment aimed at detecting possible differential responses against bonamiosis between oysters from three natural populations geographically and ecologically distinct. This study has enabled to identify a possible adaptation of oysters from the bay of Quiberon to the parasitosis.In order to improve the characterization of the natural resources of the European flat oyster, several populations covering the entire geographic range of the species were also studied. This study confirmed the high nucleotide diversity of the flat oyster, assessing for the first time the overall genetic diversity of natural populations of a marine bivalve mollusc. This study also enabled to identify the genetic structure of populations, with coincidences between geographical discontinuities in allele frequencies of molecular markers under positive or divergent selection and biogeographical barriers.
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Estelle Harrang. Apport des informations moléculaires et cellulaires pour la caractérisation de la résistance de l'huître plate européenne vis-à-vis de la bonamiose, et pour la détection de signatures de la sélection naturelle. Sciences agricoles. Université de La Rochelle, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LAROS374⟩. ⟨tel-00840222⟩

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