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La vulnérabilité des lacs face au couplage du climat et des perturbations anthropiques locales : approche paléolimnologique basée sur les cladocères

Abstract : Lake ecosystems are increasingly subjected to multiple perturbations but their response is too rarely considered in overall. But, though a complex set of interactions, each perturbation can modulate the intensity of the impact of each other on lakes, and thus their response. In this context, this work is focused on deepening our understanding of the response of lakes in a context of multiples perturbations, over the long-term. We studied this response performing a paleolimnological approach (based on cladoceran) on three large, deep lakes (Lakes Geneva, Bourget and Annecy) submitted to a similar regional perturbation (i.e., climate warming) and varying intensities of two local perturbations (i.e., changes in nutrient inputs and fisheries managment practices). The ability of cladoceran to integrate the temporal changes in the pelagic food web in response to three environmental perturbations makes them a suitable model to reconstruct changes in the whole pelagic community. Specifically, we addressed (i) changes in cladoceran communities, during the last century, in response to three environmental perturbations and (ii) the impact of these perturbations on reproductive behavior of Daphnia. However, the lack of knowledge in large, deep lakes on the representativity of source cladoceran communitites by fossil assemblages in sediments firstly led to a methodological calibration. This last showed that the represention level of source communities was different according to the type of remain. Parthenogenetic remain assemblages (i.e., exoskeleton) reflect accurately the taxonomical and size structure of source communities in contrast to ephippia which are reliable proxy to reconstruct reproductive behavior. Following these results, the paleolimnological reconstructions of cladoceran communities showed that their ecological trajectories are controlled by complex interactions between the three perturbations, according to time periods and lakes. Moreover, the response of cladoceran communties to climate was different between the three lakes as a function of the intensity of local forcings. These observations suggest that it is important to include the role of local perturbations in predicting the future impact of climate change on lakes. The impact of environmental perturbations on the reproductive behavior of Daphnia is such that interspecific hybridization events were observed. However, these hybridization events were the result of different sensitivity to perturbations among Daphnia species.
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  • HAL Id : tel-00839587, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 315677

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Benjamin Alric. La vulnérabilité des lacs face au couplage du climat et des perturbations anthropiques locales : approche paléolimnologique basée sur les cladocères. Sciences agricoles. Université de Grenoble, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENA012⟩. ⟨tel-00839587⟩

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