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Nouvelles méthodes de détermination des métaux dans les cendres volantes

Abstract : Solid waste generated by our society are numerous, fly ashes are produced during the combustion of domestic or industrial waste in incinerators. Fly ashes are also produced through coal combustion in coal fired power plants. Fly ashes are results of these combustions and represent important quantity of waste produced every year by our society. They have variable use – in construction, road industry, or they can be stocked for further use. As they are result of different origin, they have complex mineral and elemental composition. As a by-product or as a recycled product fly ashes fate is important to determine. In this view the determination of the elemental composition of fly ashes is the aim of this work.Conventional methods of sample preparation are acid digestion or alkali fusion. These procedures are time and reagent consuming and complete digestion is not assured. The potential contamination of the reagents employed is important during these classical sample preparation methods. During the past decade, development of direct solid sampling using laser ablation methods was important due to the need of reducing analysis time and also reducing reagent consumption. In this work, two methods based on laser ablation will be studied for fly ash analysis: Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). LIBS will be studied for quantitative determination of major elements in fly ash samples while Laser ablation / ICP MS will be employed for trace element determination.The sensitivity optimization and different calibration strategies are key problems of laser sampling methods. Sample preparation and condition optimisation were performed to determine major, minor and trace elements such as Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sr, V and Zn by both methods – LIBS for major elements and LA-ICP-MS for minor and trace elements.Analytical properties such as detection limits, accuracy and analytical working curves were obtained following suitable optimisation of binders and internal standards. Compromise binder and analytical conditions were selected to determine the elements in fly ash samples.In conclusion, direct solid sampling using laser ablation followed by LIBS or for solid introduction into ICP was found to determine major, minor and trace elements in fly ashes, improving pellets mechanical stability, high samples sensitivity and acceptable accuracy and detection limits.
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Alice Stankova. Nouvelles méthodes de détermination des métaux dans les cendres volantes. Autre. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010LYO10020⟩. ⟨tel-00839268⟩

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