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Brillouin scattering in photonic crystal fiber : from fundamentals to fiber optic sensors

Abstract : Brillouin scattering is a fundamental nonlinear opto-acoustic interaction present in optical fibers with important implications in fields ranging from modern telecommunication networks to smart optical fiber sensors. This thesis is aimed at providing a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of both forward and backward Brillouin scattering in next generation photonic crystal fibers in view of potential applications to above mentioned fields. We show in particular that these micro-structured optical fibers have the remarkable ability to either suppress or enhance photon-phonon interactions compared to what is commonly observed in conventional fibers. Firstly, this thesis provides a complete experimental characterization of several photonic crystal fibers using a novel highly-resolved distributed sensing technique based on Brillouin echoes. We perform distributed measurements that show both short-scale and long-scale longitudinal fluctuations of the periodic wavelength-scale air-hole microstructure along the fibers. Our mapping technique is very sensitive to structural irregularities and thus interesting for fiber manufacturers to characterize and improve the fiber uniformity during the drawing process. With this technique, we also report the first experimental observationof the acoustic decay time and the Brillouin linewidth broadening in both standard and photonic crystal fibers. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate a simplified architecture of our Brillouin echoes-based distributed optical fiber sensor with centimeter spatial resolution. It is based on differential phase-shift keying technique using a single Mach-Zehnder modulator to generate a pump pulse and a _-phase-shifted pulse with an easy and accurate adjustment of delay. These sensing techniques are also applied to distributed strain measurement. Another aspect of this thesis is the investigation of a novel method for suppressing stimulated Brillouin scattering that is detrimental to optical fiber transmissions and fiber lasers. We experimentally study several fibers and a demonstrate 4 dB increase of the Brillouin threshold in a photonic crystal fiber by varying periodically the core diameter by only7%. The efficiency of this passive technique is verified by use of our distributed sensing technique where the oscillating Brillouin frequency shift is clearly observed.Lastly, we present experimental and numerical results demonstrating the simultaneous vi Abstract frequency-selective excitation of several guided acoustic Brillouin modes in a photonic crystal fiber with a multi-scale structure design. These guided acoustic modes are identified by using a full vector finite-element model to result from elastic radial vibrations confined by the air-silica microstructure. We further show the strong impact of structural irregularities of the fiber on the frequency and modal shape of these acoustic resonances
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 27, 2013 - 3:42:11 PM
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Birgit Stiller. Brillouin scattering in photonic crystal fiber : from fundamentals to fiber optic sensors. Other. Université de Franche-Comté, 2011. English. ⟨NNT : 2011BESA2019⟩. ⟨tel-00839263⟩



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