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L’aventure sous-marine : Histoire de la plongée sous-marine de loisir en scaphandre autonome en France (1865-1985)

Abstract : Scubadiving was born in France (Aveyron) in the early 1860s. Although the invention wasefficient under water worker did not find it useful enough. Free diving and scuba diving weremainly used for sponge and shell fishing. P. Bert and J.S. Haldane – two scientists – were thefirst to settle down the basis of decompression. We have to wait until 1930 to considerscubadiving as a hobby : first submarine in the Mediterranean sea, then Yves Le Prieurcreated the first aqualung and established the first diving club in 1935. At the end of theSecond World War, soldiers made the invention theirs and improved the system withCousteau and Tailliez. Scubadiving grew up thanks to the fédération française nationaled’études et de sports sous-marins and the Club Méditerranée. The first submarine workscompanies used the aqualung of Jacques-Yves Cousteau : scubadiving became famous : TheSilent world won the Palme d’Or in Cannes in 1956. Some specialised international pressappeared around 1960, scubadiving was not only for the army but also a hobby for everybodywith degrees and a specific curriculum. Scubadiving became more and more popular thanks toits specific rules, business development and professional instructors. Scubadiving becameconsumer goods thanks to its equipment, its dedicated trips and scubadiving clubs. At thebeginning, it was unbelievable to think of it as a fulltime job but quickly the first unionsappeared. In the middle of the 80s professional scubadiving did exist. It participated to set upa reasonable practice. There were more and more competitors. Technological innovationssuch as scubadiving computers or stabilizing jacket – at the beginnings of the 80s – opened upto women (30% of them) and made the activity more hedonistic. Technology linked to thedesire of adventure helped scubadiving to be a legitimate practise. Scubadiving is not either asport not a contemplative activity.
Keywords : Scubadiving Apnea
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Vianney Mascret. L’aventure sous-marine : Histoire de la plongée sous-marine de loisir en scaphandre autonome en France (1865-1985). Education. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010LYO10220⟩. ⟨tel-00839091⟩

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