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Modélisation multi-échelle et simulation numérique de l’érosion des sols de la parcelle au bassin versant

Abstract : The overall objective of this thesis is to study a multiscale modelling and to develop a suitable method for the numerical simulation of soil erosion on catchment scale. After reviewing the various existing models, we derive an analytical solution for the non-trivial coupled system modelling the bedload transport. Next, we study the hyperbolicity of the system with different sedimentation laws found in the literature. Relating to the numerical method, we present the validity domain of the time splitting method, consisting in solving separately the Shallow-Water system (modelling the flow routing) during a first time step for a fixed bed and updating afterward the topography on a second step using the Exner equation. On the modelling of transport in suspension at the plot scale, we present a system coupling the mechanisms of infiltration, runoff and transport of several classes of sediment. Numerical implementation and validation tests of a high order wellbalanced finite volume scheme are also presented. Then, we discuss on the model application and calibration using experimental data on ten 1 m2 plots of crusted soil in Niger. In order to achieve the simulation at the catchment scale, we develop a multiscale modelling in which we integrate the inundation ratio in the evolution equations to take into account the small-scale effect of the microtopography. On the numerical method, we study two well-balanced schemes : the first one is the Roe scheme based on a path conservative, and the second one is the scheme using a generalized hydrostatic reconstruction. Finally, we present a first model application with experimental data of the Ganspoel catchment where the parallel computing is also motived.
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Minh Hoang Le. Modélisation multi-échelle et simulation numérique de l’érosion des sols de la parcelle au bassin versant. Mathématiques générales [math.GM]. Université d'Orléans, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012ORLE2059⟩. ⟨tel-00838947⟩

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