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Élaboration de nanoparticules hybrides multifonctionnelles à base de silice par microémulsion inverse : application à la conception d’un agent antibactérien

Abstract : This thesis aims at developing hybrid nanoparticles based on silica by reverse microemulsion. The silica nanoparticles are the basic matrix containing and protecting organic molecules and/or metallic nanoparticles. The combined incorporation of different entities within the silica opens wide prospects for the introduction of new properties related to the hybrid structure. To develop such objects, we used reverse micelles based on water, Triton X-100, hexanol and cyclohexan as reaction medium. The influence of operating conditions on the control of the size of reverse micelles was first studied. These micelles were then set to be used as nanoreactors for the synthesis of silica nanoparticles by sol-gel using suitable alkoxysilanes precursors. We monitored how it was possible to control the size of silica nanoparticles based on the water to surfactant ratio. It was thus possible to prepare in a reproducible way nanoparticles with sizes varying from 30 nm to 200 nm. We then investigated the possibility to encapsulate, in this nanoscaled matrix, fluorophores and nanoparticles of gold and silver in a controlled manner. To ensure a good colloidal stability in solution, these hybrid nanoparticles were, on the one hand, modified by adding a functional silane and, on the other hand, by click chemistry. We have thus shown that it is possible to perform, in a same micellar media, all of manufacturing process of the hybrid nanoparticle, from the silica matrix to its functionalization passing by the incorporation of functional entities. This method of sequential synthesis allowed us to bypass the purification and redispersion steps that can be problematic in the conventional methods. All this work has been extended to the design of an antibacterial agent based of silver/silica nanoparticles, capable of preventing bacterial growth through the gradual release of silver ions. Tests conducted in solution on the impregnated cotton and polyethylene terephtalate indeed show an interesting antibacterial character of these systems.
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Bocar Noël Diop. Élaboration de nanoparticules hybrides multifonctionnelles à base de silice par microémulsion inverse : application à la conception d’un agent antibactérien. Autre. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010LYO10281⟩. ⟨tel-00838729⟩

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