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Etude de la déstabilisation des structures protéique et chromatinienne des centromères par la protéine ICP0 du virus Herpes Simplex de Type 1

Abstract : The Herpes Simplex type 1 (HSV-1) virus possesses a bimodal mode of infection. It can either replicates in an active way during the lytic cycle, or it can infect neurons and stay in latency. HSV-1 reactivates from latently infected neurons for re-establishing a lytic infection. A major viral protein implicated in reactivation is ICP0. It is a nuclear E3 ubiquitin-ligase, which has the particularity to induce the proteasome-mediated degradation of several constitutive centromeric proteins. This activity severely destabilizes the interphase centromere. My team has discovered a novel cellular response triggered by the estabilization of centromeres by ICP0, called iCDR (interphase Centromere Damage Response). The general aim of my thesis is to determine the centromere structural modifications induced by ICP0 that can trigger the iCDR and probably the reactivation. I was able to demonstrate that ICP0 affected the entire proteinacious structure of interphase centromeres. Following this, I showed by micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion approach that the nucleosomal organization of centromeric chromatin was significantly affected by ICP0. An in vivo study in nervous tissues coming from latently infected mice enabled to show a co-localization between latent HSV-1 genomes and centromeres. This co-localisation is linked to a transcriptional repression of the virus. The results of my thesis show that the destabilization of centromere by ICP0 correlates with a role of the centromeres during latency. This strongly suggests an implication of centromere destabilization in the ICP0-controlled reactivation process.
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Sylvain Gross. Etude de la déstabilisation des structures protéique et chromatinienne des centromères par la protéine ICP0 du virus Herpes Simplex de Type 1. Sciences agricoles. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011LYO10238⟩. ⟨tel-00838586⟩

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